The Martinist Order

Published with the kind permission of the author Milko Bogaard, who prepared this excellent study with the collaboration of Marcel Roggeremans. Originally published under the Dutch website Geschiedenis van de occulte en mystieke broederschappen

VERSION 1.2. milko bogaard, November 2000


 The philosophy of the MARTINIST-ORDER is in fact based upon the work of three different men, Martinez De Pasqually, Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, and Jean Baptiste Willermoz. Therefore I'll start with a (brief) profile on these 18th century 'Illuminaries' ;

MARTINEZ DE PASQUALLY (1727 - 1774/09/20), born as (full name) Jacques de Livron Joachim de la Tour de la Casa Martinez de Pasqually . He had founded the ' Ordre des Chevaliers Maçons Elus Cohens de l'Univers' (Order of Knight Masons, Elect Priests of the Universe ) a.k.a. the' ELUS COHEN '. De Pasqually's doctrine is expounded in his only work, "the Reintegration of Beings". The book is a 'pseudo-commentary' on the 'Pentateuch' . De Pasqually's order was divided into three classes, with a total of "9, 10, or 11 Degrees" (dependant on which set of documents one studies), followed by a 'secret grade'. The 'Secret Grade' contained the 'Réau- Croix' -degree (not to be confused with 'Rose-Croix'), in which the initiate practised the art of Theurgy (magical invocation). After De Pasqually's death in 1774 the 'Elus Cohen'-temples soon became dormant. Sebastian de las Casas, the last Grand Master of the Elus Cohen, delivered the archives of the order to the 'Philalèthes' (see "1870 RITE ANCIEN ET PRIMITIF DE MEMPHIS-MISRAÏM" ). De Pasqually's teachings and doctrine continued within the bosom of a small number of Kabbalistic 'Areopagoi' , composed of 9 Elus Cohens ('Elect Priests'). One of the last known direct representatives of the original Elus Cohen was a msr. Destigny, who died in 1868. The successors of the E.'.C.'. at the end of the 19th century were Bergeron, Bréban-Salomon, Carl Michelsen ( Denmark) and Edouard Blitz (USA). Blitz was also an initiate of the 'Chévaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte' and the 'Memphis-Misraim Rite'. He was the direct successor of Antoine Pont. The immediate successors in France were Fugairon and Charles Détré (source-Fr.Roggemans). According to Dr.Edouard Blitz in his manual "Ritual and Monitor of the O.'.M.'., the following rites were "entirely or partially derived from the Elus Cohen" : - ILLUMINATI OF AVIGNON (Hermetic) , Dom Pernety 1766 - ILLUM. THEOSOPHISTS (Mystic), Chantanier 1767 - PHILALETHES (Occult) Savalette de Langes* 1773 - PRIMITIVE RITE OF NARBONNE (Rosicrucian), 1780

* Savalette de Langes was also co-founder of La Société Philantropique (1780), together with (amongst others) Louis Claude de Saint-Martin.

LOUIS CLAUDE DE SAINT-MARTIN ( 01/18/1743 - 1803/10/13). Saint-Martin was initiated into Pasqually's ELUS COHEN in october, 1768, and towards the end of 1770 he becomes Martinez De Pasqually's personal secretary. After De Pasqually's death Saint-Martin tries to convert the Elus Cohen to his personal blend of Christian mysticism (through the years, Saint-Martin gradually felt uneasy about the theurgical operations of the rite). He failt to convert the rite, and decides to leave the order. Meanwhile he publishes several works (his first book had been published in 1775, Des Erreurs et de la Vérité (' Of Errors and Truth' , a book that was recommended by "the Initiated Knights and Brothers of Asia" and used by the "Philalethes") "and assumes the role of mentor and teacher" (source: Sar Ignatius). It is not certain that Saint-Martin founded an order of any kind, however, there's some evidence, if slight, found in private correspondences, in which one finds references to the existence of a group called the "Société des Initiées" (Society of Initiates, founded in 1785 by Willermoz). The 'group' is also referred to as the "Société des Intimes" (Society of Friends). Anyway, in both cases the group/society is represented by the initials "S.I." ("Supérieur Inconnu"). The followers of Saint-Martin (in various european countries, including Russia) met in small circles, which were based on 'personal initiation' (the initiator employs the biblical "laying on of hands" upon the initiate). According to Sar Ignatius (R+C Martinist Order ) the ceremony comes directly from an order called THE ORDER OF UNKNOWN PHILOSOPHERS 1. Saint-Martin had used the ancient order, thus Sar I., as a "blueprint" to create his 'circles', sometimes referred to as the SOCIETY OF SAINT- MARTIN. The ceremony of the 'personal initiation' also included a ritual which was derived from the Elus Cohen. Saint-Martin's initiation conferred the quality of "Unknown Superior", S.'.I.'. Louis Claude de Saint-Martin died in 1803, " leaving many disciples in several European countries. After his death, his disciples carried on with the Transmission of the Initiation and with the diffusion of the doctrine of the "Unknown Philosopher", the pseudonym under which Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin published his books. They are particularly active in France, in Germany, in Denmark, and in Russia. In 1821, Initiations from person-to-person are known to have taken place. From that year to the 1880's, groups of Initiators carry the Transmission everywhere and particularly in Italy and Germany". (source: R+CMO, Sar Ignatius)

JEAN-BAPTISTE WILLERMOZ (1730/10/07 - 1824/05/20) was a pupil of Martinez De Pasqually. Willermoz had become a mason in 1750. In 1753 he founded a lodge called 'La Parfaite Amitié' , of which he became Master. In 1767 Willermoz meets Bacon De Chevalerie, Deputy-Grandmaster of the 'Elus-Cohen'. Through this meeting Willermoz became aware of the existence of a German Masonic order called'Stricte Observance Templière'. Willermoz contacted the Stricte Observance in 1772. In 1774 a lodge is founded in Lyon called "Loge Ecossaise Rectifiée 'La Bienfaissance''. In 1777 Willermoz implemented the teachings of the 'Elus Cohen' within the rite of the 'Stricte Observance'. On a convention in 1778 it was decided that the rite in the provence of Auvergne would go by the name of 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte' ; C.B.C.S.* The widow of Joseph Pont assured the succession of Willermoz as she passed on the complete archives of the C.'.B.'.C.'.S.'. to Cavarnier in 1893. The rites of the C.B.C.S. were transmitted to the 'Grand Priory of Helvetia' (Switzerland) . After 1945 the Rite returned to France and was reactivated. In the Martinist rituals we can find traces of the Templar tradition of the rite. Often, the influence of Willermoz on Martinism is described as ' Willermozism'.

*the C.B.C.S. was included in the Rite Ecossais Rectifié (R.E.R.)

1 Some sources state that Saint-Martin quickly became a teaching force within the ranks of the THE ORDER OF UNKNOWN PHILOSOPHERS. "Claiming connection with an ancient Order, dating back to 1643 of a 'Rosicrucian character' and having Heinrich Khunrath, Alexander Sethon, Sendivogius, and Boehme among its ranks, the Society of Unknown Philosophers also linked itself to "Les Freres d Orient" created in Constantinople in 1090. The teachings of this society were conveyed from teacher to disciple and their principle unifying form was the distinction of receiving "The Initiation" which gave them the right to be known as "Unknown Superiors" or "Superieurs Inconnus" or S.I. as it is written. Saint-Martin's writings, under the pseudonym "The Unknown Philosopher," made him quite in demand among European aristocracy" KABBALAH & THE HERMETIC TRADITION, Mark Stavish Arthur Edward Waite on Saint-Martin and a possible affiliated organization at Saint-Martin's time, in his book "a new Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry" Waite presents the following information: Waite explains there's been a Saint-Martin (circa 316-397 A.D.), who was Bishop of Tours in 371, on which a masonic rite was based about 1770, the rite carried the name of "Ecossais Rectifie de Saint-Martin". The rite arose at the time at the "Lodge -or- Chapter of St.Theodore of Metz". But, as Waite explains, the rite was based on the christian legend of Saint-Martin, who was Bishop of Tours in the 4th century A.D., and not on Louis Claude de S.M.

Dr.Edouard Blitz, General Delegate of the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order in the U.S.A. and successor of Antoine Pont's E.'.C.'., also refers to the "Rectified Rite of Saint Martin" in the 'official' Martinist manual he wrote. The manual was called 'Ritual and Monitor of the M:::O:::', and was published on April 2, 1896. According to Blitz, the rite was established by Saint-Martin himself in 1767.

"The system of De Pasqually's Elus Cohen underwent a transformation by Saint-Martin, and became the rectified Rite in 10 Degrees, classified in 2 Temples", thus Blitz. In 1782 Martin's Rite was introduced in Germany, according to Blitz. The 10 degrees were transformed into 7 Degrees and the rite was known in Germany as "Reformed Ecossism".



Papus, Chaboseau and the 'Ordre Martiniste'

As stated before, it has probably never been the intention of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin to found an actual order, but the continuation of the S.I. Initiation transmitted from person to person would finally lead to the foundation of one of the most prolific esoteric organizations of the western world, the ORDE MARTINISTE or in English, THE MARTINIST ORDER.

It was P. Gaëtan Leymarie ( 1817 - 1901 ), publisher of the periodical 'La Revue Spirite', who arranged a meeting in Paris between Gérard Anaclet Encausse (07/13/1865 - 10/25/1916 ) aka Papus, and Pierre-Augustin Chaboseau (06/17/1868 - 01/21/1946). Leymarie was a disciple of Allen Kardec (Leon Revail) . Kardec had published in 1857 "Le Livre des Esprits", after which Kardec became a household name in the world of Spiritism ( Kardec is important mostly for his codification of the doctrine of spiritual progress through reincarnation, a doctrine which influenced Blavatsky in her Theosophical writings).

Both students of medical science, Papus and Chaboseau discovered that they both had received the S.I.-Martinist Initiation. In 1888 Papus and Chaboseau exchanged Initiations to consolidate their lines of succession. Gerard Encausse (Papus) had received his 'Initiation' from Henri Dellage, a few weeks before Delaage's death in 1882. Pierre-Augustin Chaboseau was initiated in 1886, at the age of twenty, by his aunt Amelie de Boise-Montmart.

According to Chaboseau the 'Initiation' consisted of an "oral transmission of a particular teaching and a certain comprehension of the laws of the Universe and of Spiritual life, which, in no case could be regarded as an Initiation in a ritualistic form" The quote was found in Chaboseau's 'archive' by his son Jean Chaboseau.

(source : R.A. in "L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie", ed. 2000)




Pierre Augustin Chaboseau (1868-1946) : Initiated in 1886

Amélie de Boise-Mortmart*

Adolphe Desbarolles

Henri de la Touche

J.A. Hennequin

Abbé de Lanoüe ( +, 1820)

Louis Claude de Saint-Martin ( +, 1803)

Saint Martin was initiated by Baudry de Balzac in the ELUS COHEN in 1768.


Gérard Anaclet Vincent Encausse (1865-1916) : Initiated in 1882

Henri Delaage ( +, 1882)

- unknown -

Msr. Jean Antoine Chaptal ( +, 1832)

Louis Claude de Saint-Martin ( +, 1803)

A survey of the filiation of the "ORDRE MARTINISTE" ;

Chaptal died in 1832, Delaage was born in 1825, it seems unlikely that Chaptal had initiated Delaage at the age of seven!

(courtesy of "Ordre Martiniste")


"Martinism" is generally considered to be a collective noun representing the followers of the 18th century French mystic Louis Claude de Saint-Martin. It is in particular based on the writings of this French mystic. Martinism has also a strong bond with the Elus Cohen of Martinez De Pasqually, as a matter of fact the followers of Martinez de Pasqually (1727-1774) are also known as 'Martinists'. Disciples of De Pasqually follow the technique of theurgic operations, those of Saint-Martin follow the method of inner guidance and illumination, which is known as the "Inner way" or

"Way of the Heart".

Both share the belief of the Divine Glory of Man's Origin - and both have the same aim: to regain that glorious Divinity.In general Martinism is a system of philosophic tought, mainly based on the doctrines of Martinez De Pasqually's."'La Réintegration des êtres / Treatise on the Reintegration of Beings into their original virtues, powers and qualities". On the purpose and aim of the Martinist Order Papus wrote ;

"the Order, as a whole, is especially a school of moral knighthood, endeavouring to develop the spirituality of its members by the study of the invisible world and its laws, by the exercise of devotion and the intellectual assistance and by the creation in each spirit of an all the more solid faith as it is based on observation and science"

To avoid any misunderstanding 'we' usually refer to the followers of De Pasqually as "Martinezists". "Martinism" is in essence a collection of five various rites, orders and groups:

"L'Ordre des Chevaliers Maçon Elus Cohens de l'Univers", founded in 1758 by Martinez de Pasqually

"L'Ordre des Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte", founded in 1778 by Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, belonging to the 'Higher Derees" of the 'Régime Ecossais Rectifié', or ' Rite Ecossais Rectifié' (R.E.R. - "Scottish Rectified Rite")

"L'Ordre Martiniste des Elus-Cohens", founded in 1768 by Martinez de Pasqually.

The friends and disciples of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, the "Unknown Philosopher".

"L'Ordre Martiniste", founded in 1887* by Papus as 'L'Ordre des Supérieurs Inconnus'.


*other sources state 1888.


Papus and Chaboseau decided to create an organization that would serve as a centre of study of "Martinism' and as a means to propagate the Martinist teachings. At the same time the Order propagated the study of symbolism, cults and mystical traditions through an academy of Science, Art and Social Studies. The 'O:::M:::' would establish a Hermetic school under the name of L' ECOLE HERMETIQUE (see chapter "1896 Societe Alchimique de France"), which "through Arabic, Sanskrit, Greek and Latin undertook studies of Hermetical prime-sources. Papus and his friends also strived towards research into the Divine Sciences as revelation of the history of humanity" (notes on "Martinism', source unknown*). There was an emphasis on the study of Spiritism, Magnetism, Magic and Astrology (in theory and practise) by means of "Scientific experiments". "The reintegration of humanity should as religious subjects through the minds of De Pasqually and Saint-Martin lead onto an original purity. Thus should the ancient Gnostic goal of a closeness between Men and God be accomplished (notes*).

'Martinism' as formulated by Papus and Chaboseau was ment to be a 'gateway' to Higher Degrees and teachings. Papus also wanted to strive towards the 'unification of all occult orders'; He shared this vision with men like John Yarker and Theodor Reuss. These men were in communication with each other at the time, and there was a 'constant' interchange of documents, charters, and information between them.


According to Papus, the first personal Initiations (1) into the redefined "Martinist Order" date back to 1884. The first Lodges were founded between 1887 and 1890. Actually, the first Lodge was founded by Papus, Josephin Peladan, and Stanislas De Guaita, and was probably located at the "rue Pigalle" were Josephin Peladan lived.The name ORDE MARTINISTE turns up for the first 1887. The O.'.M.'. was a fusion of the "Ordre des Elus Cohen" and the "Rectified Rite of


Saint-Martin* ".

As mentioned before, in 1888 Papus and Chaboseau discovered that they were both initiated into the S::I:: Degree. Together they redefined the ORDRE MARTINISTE with Papus acting as its leader. In 1889 the first official proclamation of the ORDRE MARTINISTE is published in the periodical "L'Initiation". In 1891 the order was placed under a Supreme Counsil of 12 members with Papus appointed as President for life and as Grand Master. The idea of this Supreme Council was developed two years earlier and the Council was originally called "Conseil Occulte des 12 de la Rose+Croix ".

The 12 original members of the "Suprême Conseil de L'Ordre Martiniste" were:


Gerard Encausse (Papus), Augustin.Chaboseau, Stanislas De Guaita, Lucien Chamuel, Francois-Charles Barlet, Paul Sedir (Yvon Leloup), Paul Adam, Maurice Barres, Jules Lejay, Georges Montieres, Jaques Burget, and Josephin Peladan.

The order was officially known as "l'Ordre des Supérieurs Inconnus" ( 2), the Order of the Unknown Superiors, comprising of three degrees.

"Papus claimed to have come into the possession of the original papers of de Pasqually and to have been given authority in the Rite of Saint-Martin* by his friend Henri Viscount Delaage, who claimed that his maternal grandfather had been initiated into the order by Saint-Martin himself". (Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas)

The Martinist Order would soon establish branches all over Europe and America, and was to become a primary focus for Papus …

* see Waite's commentary on "The Rite of Saint-Martin" in the beginning of the chapter on the M:::O:::

1 On the method of "personal Initiation" ; each member who'd received the S.I. Degree was empowered to form a group, which was pledged solely to conseal the name of the person from who he had received the Order on his own part. The early rituals describe the method as follows: "The diffusion of the Order is like cellular diffusion. One cell never shuts up another, except for a very short period. The mother-cell divides or rather gives birth to cellules, which themselves become 'mothers' in a very short space of time"

2 The O:::M::: was officially called the "Ordre des Silencieux Inconnus" aka "Ordre des S:::I::: , sometimes referred to as "Brethren of the Six Points" (A.E.Waite in "a new Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry" )


Gérard Anaclet Vincent Encausse ( Papus )

1865 - 1916

Encausse's pseudonym "Papus" was taken from the "Nuctemeron of Appolonius of Tyana" , which was published as a supplement to Eliphas Levi's "Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie". "Papus" means "Physician" (of the first hour), after the Egyptian genii of the healing arts.

Papus was born in La Coruña, Spain on July 13, 1865, of a Spanish mother and a French father. His family moved to Paris when Papus was four.

" As a young man, Encausse spent a great deal of time at the Bibliothèque Nationale studying the Qabalah, the Tarot, the sciences of magic and alchemy, and the writings of Eliphas Lévi ". Papus also studied material which came from Charles Nodier, writer, occultist and chief librarian of the famous Arsenal Library in 1824. In 1934 the library was incorporated with the National Library.

Papus became aquainted with a circle of Gnostics, Rosicrucians, and 'older' Martinists, all students of the late Eliphas Levi. "It was amidst this circle that Gerard Encausse was to make acquaintance with HENRI DELAAGE, his initiator, who, in 1882, consecrated the young Encausse with the name 'PAPUS S:::I:::' !" ("the Balzac of the Occult and the Russian Sphynx").

About his Initiation Papus' commented :

"a few months before his death, Delaage wanted to entrust 'the seed' which had been entrusted to him at one time; a simple gift consisting of 2 letters and some dots, a summary of a doctrine of Initiation and the 'Trinity' which had illuminated all the works of Delaage. But the 'Invisible One' was there, and its Light illuminated the responsibility entrusted to me, to plant this spiritual Seed in soil where it can and will develop" ("freely" transl. from the original in French)

After his study (1894) Papus starts to work as a physician and as head of the laboratory of the "Hopital de la Charite de Paris" . He had received his "Doctor of Medicine degree" on July 7, 1894, upon submital of a dissertation on Philosophical Anatomy.

At the same time he started a career as a prolific author. Papus published 160 titles during his life (books, articles etc.). In 1888 he received international recognition with his second publication "Traité Elementaire de Science Occulte" (1).

During his life, Papus was also involved in the publication of several journals, reviews etc. Besides the earlier mentioned "la revue théosophique" and the 'official' Martinist review 'L'Initiation', there were the Le Voile D'Isis (1890, with Détre as editor-1912-), 'LeRéveil Gnostique', 'La Gnose', "le Lotus" (TS) ,"Light of Paris" (Spiritualism), "la Lumière d'Orient" and 'Mysteria' ( 1913).

Several of the Martinist Order's jurisdictions outside of France published their own Journals ;

1905, publication of the Martinist bulletin "L'Isis" appears in Hungary.

1906, publication of the English version of "L'Initiation" for England appears under the name of "INRI ".

1909, A Martinist newspaper appears in the United States, called "Treshold"

1910, the official review "Isida " is published in Russia.


His meeting with M Philippe from Lyon upsets his vision of the world. From this time on Papus becomes the propagator of Christian Mysticism and "the Way of the Heart", which Saint-Martin called the "Inner Way" . The core of this philosophy, as described by Papus, is published in Papus' The Cardiac or Mystic Path '. Papus deals in this publication with the importance of simplicity and the purification of body, soul and mind in one's spiritual quest. Another text of Papus which reflects the philosophy of the 'Inner Way' is appropriately called 'the Way of the Heart' ;

"I know a simple man who has never read a book and who, nevertheless, can solve the trickiest problems of science better than famous scientists. There are humble people without academic qualifications and medical experience to whom heaven is so accessible that the sick are healed at their request and the wicked feel their hearts melting in loving kindness at their contact".

the complete text can be found at


A.Philippe Nizier (1842-1905), who used magnetism as a healing-technique, attracted many followers at the time (see Chapter "1850-1900 France"). Among them were occultists like Papus, Marc Haven (Dr.Lalande), Sedir, Phaneg etc. The influence of Maitre Philippe upon the Martinist Order of Papus should not be underestimated! Within some modern-day Martinist Lodges Maitre Philippe is venerated as one of the 'Unknown Superiors'. There are Martinists who claim that 'Papus' was chosen to create the O:::M::: , at the time when he became one of the companions of Philippe. Papus wrote a text called "the Incarnation of the Elect" which is often referred to as 'prove'. Here's the passage which refers to the 'group of Compagnions' ;

" And I was not allowed to write the mystery of this incarnation when eleven elect passed by the sun to accompany him who came deliberately back on Earth, and the eleven arrived at the sun five years after half the century "

Papus wrote many articles on the ' healing-techniques' of Maitre Philippe. The following phrase is an excerpt from an article by Papus and published in "L'Initiation", of certain experiments on healing-methods of M.Philippe.

At the time of one of my last voyages, the Master instructed me the following practise; I had to "touch" the face of a young girl who had a sister who was ill. The sick child was 2 kilometers away from her sister and me. By means of "touch" and "concentration" the child was cured. This treatment is generally known by many hypnotizers ....

Papus was known to the poor of the district around the la rue de Savoie in Paris as the 'bon docteur', as Papus treated his patients, that is to say the poor and needy, for free.

When World War I broke out, Papus volunteered to help the casualties. He enters the war as doctor and Head of an ambulance. Due to his work in the notorious trenches at the front, he falls seriously ill and Papus dies on October 25, 1916 at the "Hopital de la Charite de Paris", the same hospital where he had started his career as a physician. Papus was 51 when he died.

Papus' method of treatment often started with an observation of the patient's aura to support his diagnosis. Papus' method of treatment evidently appealed to the Vital Life-Force of the patient. Papus' classified diseases in three 'classes' ;

Diseases of the Body (fevers, traumas)

"Astral" Diseases (tuberculosis, cancer) , can be treated by Homoeopathy and Magnetism

Diseases of the 'Spirit' (epilepsy, hysteria, madness), can be treated with the help of 'Magic'. According to Papus this kind of disease has its root in "Evil", and is therefore not subject to one's Kharma. Papus' first actual teacher in the intellectual aspects of occultism was the Marquis Joseph Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (1842-1909). As stated in the "History of the FUDOSI-Addendum series", Saint-Yves had inherited the papers of Antoine Fabre d'Olivet (1768 *-1825), one of the great teachers of French occultism. Papus was also a follower of Saint-Yves' concept of Synarchy (see "F.U.D.O.S.I.- Addendum 7" and Chapter "1850-1900 France").

From these days on, Papus would always refer to d'Alveydre as his "Intellectual teacher". Papus considered "Le Maitre Philippe' (Philippe Nizier) as his "Spiritual Master" and Peter Davidson, whom Papus called "one of the wisest of the Western Adepts", as his 'Practical Master'. Papus met Monsieur Phillippe (sometime about 1886-1887) through his fiancee Mathilde. As stated in Part 5 of this 'series' :

At first, it seems that Papus suspected that Nizier exercized "some illicit fascination" over her. When Papus tried to defend her by occult means , the ritual actually backfired when he tried to attack Nizier. "Papus says it was from this instant he recognized Phillippe as his spiritual master (maitre spirituelle)".

Papus was also a great admirer of the works of Louis Lucas, an alchemist and follower of Levi. Papus called himself a pupil of Lucas. His brochure "L'Occultism Contemporain", published in 1887 was dedicated to Lucas. In respect of Papus' Martinist affiliations I think it would be interesting to know more about his relationship with the Italian Martinist Giuliano Kremmerz (1861-1930). Kremmerz' school was supposedly based on Martinism. His branch traces back to the 'school' of Eliphas Levi, and is called "MARTINISMO NAPOLITANO'. Kremmerz (2) was an 'old' Martinist, and an acquaintance of Papus at the time. Many Martinists suppose that Kremmerz exchanged initiations with Papus. According to Andres Kibisa, an Italian Martinist, it would be strange if they did not exchange their lineages. "They were friends, with Papus being in need to strengthen his main line of affiliation, and with kremmerz in possesion of a more trustable filiation, it seems to me very odd if they did not exchange their lines of succession !", thus Kibisa (Centro Studi Andrés Kimbisa ). Kibisa also refers to another ancient martinist filiation, the only one linked directly ( Kibisa's words) to De Pasqually. He refers to Lucien Francois Jean-Maine (Tau Ogdoade-Orfeo I). Maine's relatives were members of the original Cohen-temple in Leogane, Haiti. After De Pasqually's death several members of the Elus Cohen, together with some Masons and Templars, founded the "Les Templiers Noires". Jeane-Maine spent some time in Paris where he met Papus. It is said that he exchanged his M.M. filiations (amongst others) with Papus, for which Jean-Maine received in return such charters as the O.T.O. etc. "Is it possible that Papus, being aware of his heritage, asked to get Jean-maine's line of succession ?".

In 1887 he was also introduced by a F.K. Gaborian into the company of Lady Marie Caithness, Duchess of Pomar, and her circle. In 1882 the Duchess was approached by Mdm Blavatsky, Colonel Olcott, and Annie Besant, to form the French branch of the "THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY".

* some sources state that D'Olivet was born in 1762.I d


(1) Some of Papus' titles and publications ;

Traité Elementaire de Science Occulte. Carré, 1888

Le Tarot des Bohémiens. Carré, 1889

Traité Méthodique de Science Occulte. Carré, 1891

La Science des Mages. Chamuel,1892

Qu´est-ce que l´Occultisme? Chamuel, 1892

Traité Elémentaire de Magie Pratique, Chamuel, 1893

Les Arts Divinatoires. Chamuel, 1895

L´Almanach du Magiste, ed. 1895 and ed.1899.

La Magie et l´Hypnose. Chamuel,1897

L´Occultisme contemporain. Carré, 1901

Comment on lit dans les mains. Ollendorff, 1902 (2º ed.)

La Cabbale, Chacornac, 1903 (3º ed.)

Almanach de la Chance pour 1905

Le Tarot Divinatoire. Libr. Hermetique, 1909

Révisé Le Voile d´Isis (articles from 1891, 1909).

Ce que doit savoir un maitre Maçon. Ficher, 1910

La Réincarnation. Dorbon, 1912

Premiers Eléments de Lecture de la Langue Hébraique.Dorbon 1913

Révisé L´Initiation (articles from 1891, publ. in 1914)

Ce que deviennent nos morts, La Sirene, 1918

ABC Illustré D´Occultisme, Dorbon, 1922 (6º ed.)

Traité Méthodique de Magie Pratique, Chacornac, 1924

La Science des Nombres. Chacornac, 1934

Traité Elémentaire d´Occultisme et d´Astrologie, Dangles, 1936


Papus in the back-room of the "Librarie du Merveilleux", used for

Martinist activities around 1890 …

(2) Giuliano Kremmerz (1861-1930)

Kremmerz is the founder of the "ORDER OF MYRIAM" and the "ORDINE OSIRIDEO EGIZIO" (EGYPTIAN OSIRIAN ORDER). The "Order ofMyriam" ( Fratellanza Terapeutico-Magica di Myriam ) was mainly a therapeutic school, the OOE was an internal Order dedicated to spiritual and operative alchemy.

Although Kremmerz was a "notorious" occultist, Kremmerz has a lot of interesting material to offer. His connections with a movement where possibly the M.'.M.'. and its ARCANA ARCANORUM is derived from, are also worthwile to investigate. Apparently, Kremmerz' first teacher was a Pasquale de Servis, a.k.a. IZAR, and his teachings were based upon the A.A.-SCALA DI NAPOLI system.


Papus and the Orders & Societies


At the age of 23, Papus became a member of the "THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY". "On October 25, 1887, Colonel Olcott personally announced the election of Papus to the newly formed General Council of the Theosophical Society at Adyar, India and as a propagator of Kiato Buddhism for the 'T.S.' . Papus became a member of Lodge-Isis, founded in July 1887 by Dramard and Gaboriau. In 1888, Papus would already leave the T.S. He had justed helped co-founding Lodge-Hermes in October, 1888. Papus "officialy" resigned on May 19, 1890. According to many sources, his reason for leaving the T.S. being the dislike of Papus of the Society's emphasis on Eastern Occultism. Some sources even state that Blavatsky and Papus disrespected each other! ( Christopher McIntosh). According to Papus' son Dr.Philippe Encausse, his father had always held Blavatsky in high esteem; see "the Balzac of the occult ….." at:



Things startened to happen for Papus, in 1887 he was also elected President of the "GROUPE INDEPENDENT DES ETUDES ESOTERIQUE".

This association attracted many popular mystics living in France at the time. They were collectively known as "LES COMPAGNONS DE LA HEIROPHONIE". Included were men like Victor Michelet, Josephin Peladan, Paul Sedir, Lucien Chamuel, Stanislas De Guaita, Albert Poisson, Ch.F.Bartlet (Alfred Foucheaux), Gary de Lacroze, Augustin Chaboseau, Phaneg ( Descormiers, + 1946), Silva, Marc Haven, Dr.Rozier, Jollivet-Castelot, etc. Many of them were Theosophists, as well as initiated Martinists of one or other chain.

Papus was editor-chief at the time of a theosophical journal called "The Veil of Isis". The "Veil of Isis" was published under the banner of the G.I.D.E.E. (published once a month, between 1890 and 1898). In 1905 the review reappeared. The review continued its publications until 1936 (Chief-editor Charnorac; Charnorac became chief-editor in 1912, the review disappeared during 1914-1918, and reappeared again in 1920. In 1936 the "Veil of Isis" changed its name to "études traditionnelles".

Papus would describe the G.I.D.E.E. as the "Outer court for a greater and higher Initiatic Order, comprising their recruits from this outer and predominantly theosophically oriented association" ("The Balzac of the Occult …")

This statement of Papus shows the obvious reason why his days in the T.S. would be short-lived. He left to give way to full time concentration on the order that would unite all Martinists. In an article of Papus, published in the "Veil of Isis" of February, 1891, he stated that the G.I.D.E.E. was already "active" for a year, with more then 350 members, a headquarter, library and conference-room included. Other contemporary members were men such as Polti, Colonel Rochas, Lemerle, Abel Haatan, Serge Basset, etc.

There are sources which state that the G.I.D.E.E. was established by Papus with the help of Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (see Chapter "1888 -OKR+C"). Saint-Yves, according to some sources, also claimed to be the Grand Master of the original Martinist Order (??). Whatever the truth is, the collaboration of a man like Saint-Yves d'Alveydre would certainly have attracted many "mystics" to the ranks of a new organization like the "Groupe Independent des Etudes Esoterique". According to various sources (e.g.Koenig) the G.I.D.E.E. also carried a succession of Fabre-Palaprat's "Order of the Temple". Bernard-Raymond Fabre-Palaprat, a physician from Paris, had "restored" the original Templar Order in 1804. The restoration was supported by Napoleon Bonaparte.

The G.I.D.E.E. ("Independent Group of Esoteric Studies") was founded to develop research-centres of occult siences. The G.I.D.E.E. was later renamed "Ecole Hermetique", the Hermetic School. The "Ecole Hermetique" probably commanded various 'subdivisions' like the "Faculte des Sciensces Hermetique" etc. (see Chapter "1896 Societie Alchimique de France")

Some of the 'professors" and lecturers who were appointed at the "faculty of Hermetic Sciences" ;

Paul Sédir, Serge Basset, Siséra Rosabis, Dr.Rozier , Jollivet Castelot . The Hermetic School was lead by a 'council of improvement' which consisted of ;


Charles Barlet


Marc Haven

Victor Emile Michelet

Serge Basset

Paul Sédir

The graduated Hermetic students would continue their studies in several Martinist Lodges in Paris ;

1) LE SPHINX. The Grand Lodge for general studies.

2) HERMANUBIS, lead by Paul Sédir, studies of the Mystic and Eastern tradition.

3) VELLÉDA, studies of French Masonry and its Symbolism

4) SPHYNGE, reserved mainly for Artistic adaptations.


In 1888 Papus and his friend Lucien Chamuel founded the "Librarie du Merveilleux" and its monthly journal "L'Initiation". Many Occultists contributed articles to the review, some of the lesser known occultists were men such as Villier de l'Isle-Adam, Catulle Mendés, Julien Lejay, Emile Goudeau, Jules Lermina,Eugéne Nus

Rodolphe Darzens, George Montiere, Aleph, el F.'.Bertrand, Bouvery, rené Caillié

George Delanne, Ely Star, Fabre des Essarts, G.Poirel, A.Robert, Rouxel, H.Sausse, G.Vitoux, Vurgey, and many others… the review was "banned" by the Vatican in Rome in 1891 and was put on the Index.

Another review of the G.I.D.E.E. was called "l'Union Occulte de France", and was published in Lyon.

The journal remained in publication until 1914, when World War I broke out. Papus' son, Dr.Philippe Encausse, reconstituted the "ORDRE MARTINISTE DE PAPUS" in 1952, and revived the original journal again.

There exists today even an English version of "L'Initiation" , obtainable on the following address: : GERME (USA) - 4287-A Beltline Road, # 330; Addison, TX 75001 – USA ; their first edition, published in 2000, was for the most part a translation of the first edition of the revived L'Initiation of Phillipe Encausse in Januari, 1953.



Apparently, Papus was a member of the " Fraternité Hermétique de Louxor', the French branch of the "HERMETIC BROTHERHOOD OF LUXOR". The French branch was headed by Francois Charles Barlet, who was also a member of the G.I.D.E.E. Certain sources state that Barlet already knew Max Theon (founder of the "H.B.of L.") in 1871 when, supposedly together with Blavatsky, they'd established the "SOCIETE SPIRITE"(1).

The "Societe Spirité" was an organization which studied the teaching of the spiritist Alan Kardec (2 weeks after its foundation the society would already be disbanded due thru 'difficulties' between Blavatsky and Theon). According to the information given in Koenig's "Ein Leben fuer die Rose" (on Krumm-Heller) Barlet was introduced to the 'H.B.of L.' by Alexander Ayton. Ayton would later join the 'Golden Dawn' . Barlet later joined Theon with his "MOUVEMENT COSMIQUE", an organization which Theon founded around 1900. Barlet was the first editor of the "Cosmic Review", which acted as "mouthpiece" for the 'movement'. Evidently, the H.B.of L. became extinct in France in the final years of the 19th century in preparation for Theon's 'Cosmic Movement'. We know this from a statement made by Barlet in 1908 "... it (H.B. of L.) only ceased in order to pass on the succession to another perfectly vital form".The statement was made in a new magazine Barlet had started, called "L'Etoile D'Orient - Revue de Hautes Etudes Psychiques". The first edition of Jan. 24, 1908 announced the establishment of the "Centre Esoterique Oriental de France". The third edition of March 24 presented an article written by Barlet, "Au Fondateur du Centre Esotérique oriental de Paris, Dr.Albert de Sarâk". The statement regarding the filiation between the H.B. of L. and the "Mouvement Cosmique" stems from the article.

1. The supposed connection between Blavatsky and Theon in Blavatsky's 'Societe Spirité'' in Cairo, Egypt in 1871 is attributed to 'The Mother' , a follower of Theon's 'Mouvement Cosmique' , based on her reminiscences of events which happened 50 years before. Furthermore, the involvement of Barlet in the 'Societe Spirité' seems also unlikely. Barlet was one of the first members of the Theosophic Society in France. René Guenon stated that Barlet hesitated to join the 'H.B.of L.', because of his membership in the Theosophic Society. Barlet asked his initiator, Rev.W.A.Ayton, if membership in the H.B.of L. was compatible with Barlet's membership in the Theosophic Society. Ayton had joined the H.B.of L. in or about the year 1880. Barlet joined a few years later in 1885...

In letters which were written in 1895 by Peter Davidson (Papus' 'Practical Master', co- founder of the 'H.B.of L.' with Max Theon) it becomes clear that Davidson was a member of several orders, among which the "G.I.D.E.E.".

Davidson also represented the "ORDRE MARTINISTE" during Davidson's 'American period', in the H.B.of L. colony in Georgia, USA.

In 1889 two Frenchmen, René Caillié ( 1831 - 1896 ) and Albert Jounet ( 1863 - 1923), founded the "FRATERNITE DE L'ETOILE" ("Fraternity of the Star"). Many of their members were Martinists. The Order had a branch of some sort in the USA, which was lead by Peter Davidson, co-founder of the 'H.B.of L.' The Order was 'baptized' "THE MORNING STAR". Apparently, the order published a journal under the same name ("Morning Star" 1), which acted as the 'official journal' of the 'Martinist Order' of Papus for a short period of time….(source: Marcel Roggemans, Belgium).

According to one source, the "FRATERNITE DE L'ETOILE" sprang from circles within the "THEOSOPHIC SOCIETY". This seems rather unlikely, because both Caillé and Jounet, two Christian esotericists, had founded the fraternity "to counter the 'atheistic neo-Buddhism' of the Theosophical Society". Caillé was also a member of the H.B.of L.

Apparently, the "Fraternite de L'Etoile" was dissolved officially at a (Theosophic?) conference in 1927 at the city of Ommen in the Netherlands. There has been an unsuccessful attempt to revive the order in 1982 (??).

The "HERMETIC BROTHERHOOD OF LUXOR" was an occult school which taught their pupils by correspondence. Papus wrote in his work 'Traité méthodique des sciences occultes' (Paris, 1903) :

"The HERMETIC BROTHERHOOD OF LUXOR instructs their members by private correspondence, helping them in their studies and exercizes on a personal basis. The organization has many members in Egypt, India, Scotland, France and America…."

Another interesting aspect of the H.B.of L. is its original intended relationship with the "Ordre Martiniste" as foreseen by Papus. The following text is taken from an article written by René Guenon, which was published in the journal "Le Voile d'Isis", in April 1925. The complete translated text of Guenon can be found in the excellent book "The Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor, Initiatic and Historical Documents of an Order of Practical Occultism", written by J.Godwin, C.Chanel, and J.P.Deveney.

René Guenon, "F-Ch.Barlet et les Sociétiés Initiatiques" , Le Voile d'Isis 30/64 (April 1925), 217-221 ...

"Towards the middle of 1888, Barlet resigned from the Theosophic Society, after the dissension that had arisen within the Isis Branch of Paris ... It was also at about this date that Papus began to organize Martinism, and Barlet was one of the first people he called on to form his Supreme Counsil. It was understood, at first, that Martinism's sole purpose was to prepare its members for entry into an Order that could confer an authentic initiation on those who showed themselves able to receive it; and the Order which they had in view for this was none other then the H.B. of L., of which Barlet had become the official representative for France.This is why Papus wrote, in 1891: "Authentically occult societies still exist, possessing the integral tradition; I call for witness one of the wisest of Western adepts, my Practical Master, Peter Davidson" *. However, this project did not succeed, and they had to content themselves, for Martinism's superior center, with the Kabbalistic Order of the Rose-Cross" (Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix)

'Traité méthodique des sciences occultes' (Paris, 1903)

The journal was under the editorship of Peter Davidson. The 'Morning Star' also represented the interests of the H.B. of L. for a while. From 1905 onwards, the journal acted as a vehicle for Theon's "Mouvement Cosmique" in the English speaking world and as the official review of Davidson's Order, "THE ORDER OF THE CROSS AND THE SERPENT", which Davidson had founded after the 'demise' of the H.B. of L.



In 1887 Saint-Yves d'Alveydre introduced Papus to the Marquis Stanislas De Guaita (1860-1898). In 1888 De Guaita, J.Peladan, Oswald Wirth, Papus and others would found the "ORDRE KABBALISTIQUE DE LA ROSE-CROIX" ("officially" the 'OKR+C' was founded by Peladan and De Guaita). The OKR+C would later be 'incorporated' with the "ORDRE MARTINISTE". After the S.I. Degree the Martinist would study the Kabbalah on a 'deeper level' within the "OKR+C".

In 1888 things began to move with regard to the development of the "ORDRE MARTINISTE" as an organization. Especially the "Congres Spirite et Spiritualiste" given in the lodgerooms of the co-Masonic order "LE DROIT HUMAIN" in Paris proved to be a success for Papus and his Martinist Order. The congress gathered both members of established occult- and Masonic orders, as well as independent occultists from all over Europe, America, and Australia. Apparently, In 1889 there were 27 Martinist Lodges in France, 33 in Germany, 36 in America, and surprisingly 9 in Sweden (McIntosh). Finally, in 1891 the Martinist Order was placed under a Supreme Counsil of 12 members with Papus appointed as President for life and as Grand Master. When Stanislas De Guaita died in 1898, Papus succeeded him as Grand Master of the OKR+C. Papus was the "Deluge General de L'Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose-Croix" until his death in 1916.

René Guenon speaks about the inactivity of the OKR+C after De Guaita's death in 1898. Guenon states that F.Ch. Barlet succeeded De Guaita as Grand Master of the OKR+C, and "although he had the title, he never exercised its functions effectively. The order, in fact, had no further regular meetings after the death of its founder, and later, when papus was thinking for a moment of reviving it, Barlet, who by now was not frequenting any occultist groups, declared that he was completely uninterested in it ; he thought, and no doubt rightly, that such efforts, resting on no solid basis, could only lead to further failures".

René Guenon, "F-Ch.Barlet et les Sociétiés Initiatiques" , Le Voile d'Isis 30/64 (April 1925), 217-221 ...

as translated in "The Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor, Initiatic and Historical Documents of an Order of Practical Occultism"



In 1888, while working as archivist for the library of Orleans in France, a Jules Doinel discovered an original charter dated 1022, which had been written by Canon Stephan of Orleans, a schoolmaster and forerunner of the Cathars who taught Gnostic doctrines ( He was burned for heresy that same year). Doinel had a vision in which the "Aeon Jesus" appeared, 'He' charged Doinel with the work of establishing a new church. Doinel was a "Grand Orient Freemason" and a practising Spiritist. "In May of 1890 (although specific dates vary) Jules Doinel attended a séance of sorts in the oratorie of the ' Duchess of Pomar (The Countess of Caithness)…. It appears that the disembodied spirits of ancient Albigensians, joined by a heavenly voice, laid spiritual hands on Doinel, creating him "Valentinus II, Bishop of the Holy Assembly of the Paraclete and of the Gnostic Church".

Too cut a long story short, the EGLISE GNOSTIQUE was founded by Jules Doinel in 1890. In 1892 Doinel consecrated Papus asTau Vincent, Bishop of Toulouse. Other Martinists, such as Paul Sedir and Lucien Chamuel were also consecrated by Doinel. These three men 'embodied' the 'nucleus' of the newly build Gnostic Universal Church.

"In 1908 a Gnostic schism occurred: the branch at Lyon under Bricaud took yet another new name; 'Église Gnostique Catholique' (EGC). Then it changed again becoming the EGLISE GNOSTIQUE UNIVERSELLE (EGU). Meanwhile the original Paris Église Gnostique of Paris had been taken over by Leon Champrenaud "Théophane" though it later disintegrated under Paul Genty "Basilides" in 1926"

source: "Stranded Bishops: Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica", by Peter-R. Koenig

In 1911 the E.G.A. became the official church of the "ORDRE MARTINISTE", the EGU was headed (since 1908) by Joannie Bricaud, who was the Patriarch of the Gnostic Church. The EGU would later change its name to "EGLISE GNOSTIQUE APOSTOLIQUE". (see Chapter " 1890 ECCLESIA GNOSTICA APOSTOLICA ").



In March of 1895 (specific dates vary) Papus joined the "Ahathoor Temple" of the "HERMETIC ORDER OF THE GOLDEN DAWN" in Paris. On May 21, 1892, the Matherses (Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers and Moina Mathers / Mina Bergson) decided to leave London and moved to Paris. In Januari 1894, the "Ahathoor-Temple" is consecrated. One source (Hermetic Order of the G.'.D.'. in Florida) states that Papus was a member at the time of consecration. His membership of the G.'.D.'. was short-lived, one year later he would leave the "Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn". In 1903 the G.'.D.'. of Mathers changed its name to "ALPHA ET OMEGA" , due to a schism within the original order. After Mather's death in 1918, Moina returned to London where she established the "Alpha et Omega III -Temple".





Well known French researcher Gerard Galtier confirms that in 1901 Papus was chartered by John Yarker (Grand Hierophant of the M.'.M.'.) to open the "SWEDENBORGIAN LODGE - I.N.R.I.". This warrant would be later renewed on March 1906. According to yet another source, Papus established in 1906 contact with "LOGE DU TEMPLE DE PERFECTION I.N.R.I.", which worked under the "Grand Loge Swedenborgienne du Rite Primitif et Original des la Franc-Maconnerie", as well as the "Loge Misraimite".

Yarker (Yarker's successor would be W.Wynn Wescott) was, amongst others, head of the 'masonic' "SWEDENBORG -RITE", the Rite's full name being "Primitive and Original Rite of Freemasonry, or Swedenborgian Rite". The Rite of Swedenborg was an offshoot of "The Illuminated Theosophists", the British branch of the French "Illuminèes Theosophes". The Rite was established at the end of the 18th century. Apparently, the rite was reestablished around 1859.

In 1877 John Yarker developed the rite, together with Francis George Irwin and Samuel Petty Leather. The "Rite of Swedenborg" consisted of 3 degrees.

The Non-masonic part of the rite would develop into the "Church of Swedenborg".

According to Reuss' journal, the "Oriflamme"(Nº 0 of the Oriflamme, supplement to Die Übersinnliche Welt, January 1902) Papus even belonged to the "Sovereign Grand Lodge of England". It has always been a subject of discussion, whether Papus has ever been a member of 'regular' masonry or not. Besides the "Oriflamme-reference", I've never seen other sources indicating that Papus was a 'regular' mason.



According to Christopher McIntosh, Papus received his initiation into the "Rite of Memphis-Mizraim" on the 12th of July 1899.

"He sought to fuse his Martinist order with the various stratas of French mystical-occult masonry", thus McIntosh. Who actually initiated Papus into the M.M. McIntosh does not tell.

Dr.Philippe Encausse, Papus' son, claimed that his father possessed two M.'.M.'. charters which came from Italy, one of the documents dated March, 25, 1907. However, nothing is known in respect of the actual contents of the documents.

Another charter, presumably dated from 1906, came from the ''Antiguo y Primitivo Rito Oriental de Memphis y Mizraïm' lead by Villarino del Villar, a descendant from Giambattista Pessina, successor of Garibaldi, who had united the original "Rite of Misraim" with the "Rite of Memphis" in 1882 (specific dates very)

In 1908, Papus, Charles Detre (aka 'Teder'), and Victor Blanchard (Papus' secretary at the time- see "1934-1951 FUDOSI-Addendum 6 'Victor Blanchard') organized in Paris, France, an international Masonic Conference, "The Masonic and Spiritualist Congress" (' Congres Maconnique Spiritualiste' ) at the temple of the "DROIT HUMAIN". The main themes of the congress were Spiritism, Magnetism, Spiritual Masonry and Esoteric Christianity.

Papus received a charter to constitute the "ANTIENT & PRIMITIVE RITE OF MEMPHIS-MISRAIM" in France. "The constituting Letters Patent were sent to Berlin from England on June 24th; they were signed (as 'Peregrinos') by Theodor Reuss, who had travelled to Paris for this purpose. Grand Masters for France [on the 24th of June] were Gérard Encausse "Papus" [33°, 90°, 96°} and Charles Détré "Teder" [33°, 97°, X°}. The Oriflamme for December 1909 also credits Détré with the 33°, 90°, and 95°; According to a letter written by Joannie Bricaud, date 1921, the charter which Papus and Detre received from Reuss did not grant them to found a "Sovereign Sanctuary" at the time. France had to wait until 1919, when the Memphis-Misraim rite was revived after the war of '14-'18. " The 'Humanidad' Mother-Lodge was revived at Lyons in accordance with the 1908 [Reuss] warrant. Thus on the 10th of September Brother Joanny Bricaud was granted a warrant [through Reuss] to establish the French Sovereign Sanctuary of the MM [33°, 90°, 96°], and likewise on the 30th of September activated the French foundation of a "Supreme Grand Council of Confederated Rites, Early Grand Scottish Rite, Memphis and Misraim, Royal Order of Scotland" etc " Joanny Bricaud:

Notes Historique sur le Rite Ancien et Primitiv de Memphis-Misraim

Peter R.Koenig ; "the Ordo Templi Orientis phenomenon"

It is stated on the website of the "O.M. des Pays-Bas" that probably on the same occasion Reuss had conferred upon Papus the X* of the O.T.O. for France (X*, 'REX SUMMUS SANCTISSIMUS' , the grade for all national Grand Masters of the O.T.O) and that Papus in turn assisted Reuss in the formation of the O.T.O. Gnostic Catholic Church, as a child of the "Eglise Gnostique de France. The information above credits Téder with the X* of the O.T.O. This is confirmed on a charter given to A.Krumm-Heller in 1908 by Reuss. Teder (Charles Detre) co-signs as "Representante en France le Grand Maitre General de l'Empire d'Allemagne" of the M.'.M.'.

The source of Papus' M.'.M.'. charter is the 'Jubilee Edition' of the Oriflamme, Schmiedeberg 1912, the official journal of Reuss' orders, at the time (1912) mainly devoted to the O.T.O. ("ORDO TEMPLI ORIENTIS").

"The "Oriflamme" was published between 1902 and 1914, initially intended as the journal of two of his many inventions, the 'Swedenborg Rite' and an order of Rosicrucians*.When these met with little success, it became the magazine for members of the AASR and MM, but by 1912 it was mainly devoted to the O.T.O." (Peter R.Koenig, "O.T.O.-FAQ" ).


* The order of rosicrucians was the SRIA offshoot 'Societas Rosicruciana in Germania' which existed from 7.7.1902 to 11.7.1907

A lodge that originally belonged to the "Spanish Rite" became the Mother-Lodge of the French branch of the "Antient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim". This lodge was named "Humanidad-Lodge", but as stated before, the French branch was not yet an independent 'obedience'.

Apparently, John Yarker, Grand Hierophant of the M.M.rite, was not happy with the activities of Reuss and Papus in France. According to Gerard Galtier in his book 'Maçonnerie Egyptienne' Yarker "nominated George Lagrèze on Sept. 9, 1909 in their place". Lagrèze (mystical nomen- Mikael ) apparently never made use of his charter until August 15, 1944, when he appointed Robert Ambelain as a Delegate of Memphis-Misraim (95)*

It is generally known that no Grand Lodge in France or England would accept Papus as a Mason. The Grand Lodges ' feared' that Papus' organization was a quasi-Masonic body of irregular Masonry, which was, certainly at the end of the first decade of the 20th century, not totally untrue. There has been a lot of speculation whether Papus was at any time a member of regular Masonry, probably not. According to Fr.Roggemans we know this from the archives of Papus himself, because there's no mention of an 'official Initiation' into the three degrees of 'regular Masonry". The Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas states that Papus was refused (around 1889) by the Grand Lodge of France, because Papus was involved in Occultism .

We've seen so far that Papus received several charters for the "Antient and Primitive rite of Memphis-Misraim". Apparently, almost all of the French occultists at the time were convinced that Papus derived his Memphis-Misraim authority from the "Spanish Sovereign Sanctuary of Memphis-Misraim".

In the book "I Riti Masonici di Misraïm e Memphis", written by Gastone Ventura

( Aldebaran ) and translated into French by Gérard Galtier and Sophie Salbreux, the writer states that most of these charters did not grant any authority at all. It is the 'never-ending story' of the value of all those Masonic documents which were sold at the right price at the time, especially with rites as Yarkers 'Antient and Primitive Rite", "Rite of Cerneau" etc., and all the everlasting tales of disputes over 'legitimacy'.

In 1910 Papus said the following with regard to his own Masonic charters;

"In my conversations and correspondences with the illustrious Brother Superior John Yarker, Supreme Head of the "Antient and Primitive Rite of Masonry", with Doctor Wescott of the "Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia", with Villarino del Villar, the illustrious Spanish Mason ….. Many of the foreign Supreme Councils have registered me among their Honorary members or as their representatives in France, which I consider an honour".

Regarding the involvement of Martinists with Masonry 'Sar Ignatius' states as follows:

"At the end of the (19th) century, the main Masonic Obediences of France, particularly the Grand Orient, were predominately humanistic and philosophical. On the fringes of mainline Masonry, were smaller Obediences of a more esoteric and spiritual nature. Most contemporary Martinists were associated with one or more of those Rites and High Grades"

In 1913 John Yarker, the 'Grand Hierophant" of the M.'.M.'., died. Yarker had 'inherit' the rite in 1902. His successor was Theodor Reuss from Germany (Oriflamme, July 1913, p. 2), Yarker's successor in England and Ireland was a Henry Meyer (33*, 90*, 96*). According to various sources Papus inherited Yarker's "Antient & Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim".



Many Martinists claim that Papus seems to have been involved in a lineage of genuine rosicrucian descendents. Some claim that this lineage contained men like Charles Nodier (1), Eliphas Levi, Count Golitzyn etc. This assertion seems rather doubtful.

Anyway, fact is that Papus was one of the premier members of the OKR+C, of which he would become its president in 1898. George Lagreze (Mikael) was initiated in the "ROSE-CROIX D'ORIENT" by Dimitri-Semelas-Deon, co-founder of the "L'ORDRE DU LYS ET DE L'AIGLE" ("Order of the Lily & the Eagle", see chapter "1914-L'Ordre du Lys et de L'Aigle") in 1914. Lagreze initiated Papus into the "Rose Croix d'Orient".

Thus, in 1913 Papus was known to be connected with Egyptian-and Hermetic Masonry, Gnosticism, Martinism (Elus Cohen and Saint-Martin), the whole movement around the 'Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor" incl. P.B.Randolph, O.T.O., and the Rosicrucians ( ' Rose-Croix d'Orient' )

1) Charles Nodier (1780-1844 ) of which is said that he was already involved with a masonic rite called the "Philadelphes" at a very young age. Supposedly, Nodier also had been a member of the Jacobin Club. In the early 19th century (1802, probably) Nodier wrote of his affiliation with a secret society he described as "Biblical and Pythagorean". In 1803 he spent some months in jail after he wrote a critical parody on Napoleon.After his imprisonment he published a book called "La Peintre de Salzbourg, journal des emotions d'un coeur souffrant, suivi des Meditations du cloitre". As a writer Nodier published various titles but one of his most curious and influential works was published anonymously ; "A History of Secret Societies in the Army under Napoleon". In this book Nodier does not clarify whether he is writing pure fiction or pure fact. In any case, Nodier develops in disguised allegories, a comprehensive philosophy of secret societies. According to Nodier, the 'supreme' secret society is called the "Philadelphes", but, as he explains, an oath binds him to make them known under their real name. One of the 'key-figures' Nodier speaks about is "Eliasin". Eliphas Levi spoke also about 'the One who was to come that would be named Eliasi'n. In 1824 Charles Nodier was appointed Chief Librarian at the famous Arsenal Library. "During his 20 years at the Arsenal Library he was able to supply a centre and rallying place to a knot of young literary men of greater individual talent than himself - the so-called Romanticists of 1830- and to colour their tastes and work very decidedly with his own predilections" ( source : "Timeline of the Authentic Tradition; 1816-1825). He became "the Source" for such young artists as Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Dumas, Delacroix, Gerard de Nerval etc. many of these writers (Hugo, Balzac) and painters were Martinists and members of "Hermetic-Rosicrucian Circles" who drew heavily on the Hermetic tradition in their works. Charles Nodier was assisted by Jean Baptiste Pitois, aka ' Paul Christian' . Both men sorted the complete Arsenal library in the 1830's and claimed to have made interesting discoveries daily.

Also at the time, Charles Nodier was elected a member of "The Academy". Nodier was also in contact at the time with Alphonse Louis Constant, better known as Eliphas Levi.

On Januari 27, 1844 , Charles Nodier died. Nodier is also listed as a Grand Master of the highly controversial "Prieure de Sion". As stated earlier, The Arsenal Library was incorporated in the National Library of Paris in 1934. The complete original library is incorporated as a special Department of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris ...



short summary on the events leading up to the foundation :

1884; Papus started to initiate candidates into 'Martinism'. In 1887 (specific dates vary +) Papus meets Chaboseau ; developments for a "Martinist organization" were realized. In 1887 the name "ORDRE MARTINISTE" turns up for the first time. Febr., 1889, Official proclamation of the "ORDRE MARTINISTE", published in the review

"l' Initiation". On September 9-16, 1889, the 'CONGRÈS SPIRITE et SPIRITUALISTE INTERNATIONAL' was held in the 'rue Cadet 16, in Paris.On this congress Papus started with his plans for the ACTUAL realization of "L' ORDRE MARTINISTE", as we know the Order today. In 1889 there were already 27 Martinist-Lodges in France, 33 in Germany, 36 in America, and 9 in Sweden. In March,1891 a supreme council of 12 members was officially installed. Papus founded a Martinist order under the name of "ORDRE DES SUPÉRIEURS INCONNUS" in three

degrees ;




The title of the 3th grade, 'Adepte' is known since the beginning of the 20th century as "SUPERIEUR INCONNU"

The Order added on a later date the 4th Degree, being the grade of "FREE ADEPT" date (in 1911 the 4th degree appeared in "L'Initiation") ; the 4th degree is known today as "Free Initiator" or S.I.I. / S.I. IV (sometimes also known as the Unknown Philosopher degree.

+ for the most I've used dates as given by the "ORDRE MARTINISTE DE PAPUS", the original order revived in 1952 by Papus' son, Dr.Philippe Encausse

Another source regarding the degrees of the O:::M::: is Edouard Blitz' Martinist manual "Ritual and Monitor of the Martinist Order". The manual was published on April 2, 1896 by permission of the Supreme Counsil under Papus. The manual describes the Degree-system as follows :


As practised in France in 1887

First Temple :

ASSOCIATE (Philosophic)


S:::I::: (Kabbalistic)

S:::I::: (Administrative)

Second Temple

Vth Degree

Vith Degree

VIIth Degree

- More information on the Degrees and the rituals is given in the Chapter concerned.

Source : "Ritual and Monitor of the M.'.O.'." , Dr.Edouard Blitz, General Delegate of the Supreme Counsil of the Martinist Order of the U.S.A. , 1ST edit. April 2, 1896

According to Papus and Chaboseau, Louis Claude de Saint-Martin had intended to establish a rite of seven degrees in 1780. These grades were; 1. Apprenti, 2. Compagnon, 3. Maître, 4. Maître Parfait, 5. Elu, 6. Ecossais, 7. Sage. Finally the degrees were reduced to three degrees; Associé, Initié, and Adepti. The third degree eventually became the "S:::I:::", "SUPERIEUR INCONNU" -degree.

As mentioned earlier on in this chapter, "Papus claimed to have come into possession of the original papers of De Pasqually and to have been given authority by his friend Henri Viscount Delaage, who claimed that his maternal grandfather had been initiated into the order by Saint-Martin himself, and who attempted to revive the order in 1887". (source; "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas"). The order mentioned here as being the order of Saint-Martin, is the controversial "Rectified Rite of Saint-Martin". The subject whether Saint-Martin established a rite or not, has always been at all points debatable. Again, as A.E.Waite states at the beginning of the chapter, there existed a rite in the 18th century called "Ecossais Rectifie de Saint-Martin". The rite arose at the time at the "Lodge -or- Chapter of St.Theodore of Metz". But, as Waite explains, the rite was based on the christian legend of Saint-Martin, Bishop of Tours.

Allegedly there lived a man in the 4th century A.D. in France also called Saint-Martin,

which was used as a "historical source" for a masonic body under the name of "Rectified Rite of Saint-Martin" (A.E. Waite "a new Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry").

The Official installation of the first Martinist Counsil, which consisted of 12 men, was proclaimed in March, 1891. These 12 men were all well known occultists, which knew each other from other esoteric organizations they were involved with. Some of them belonged to the " Fraternité Hermétique de Louxor' (Hbof L) and the"OKR+C", others being Masons of different obediences, mostly Hermetic rites and High Grades.

*except for Oswald Wirth all members of the "Supréme Conseil de la Rose+Croix" (OKR+C) of 1891 were represented in the Martinist council. I've already explained in a previous chapter that the OKR+C was connected to the Martinist Order. After the Martinist S.I. degree most of the members joined the "Ordre kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix" to increase their knowledge of the Kabbalah.

Both Maurice Barrès and Joséphin Péladan soon left the Martinist Counsil (Péladan for obvious reasons, see chapter "1888-OKR+C"), and they were replaced by Marc Haven (Dr.Lalande) and Victor-Emile Michelet (1861-1938). Michelet would later found the "ASSOCIATION DES AMIS DE PÉLADAN" (1920 -1) and "ORDRE MARTINISTE TRADITIONNEL" (1931 OMT/TMO).

Right from the beginning the "ORDRE MARTINISTE" proved to be internationally successful.

It is generally known that Papus was a skilful organizer and 'manager' in his time. Like the "THEOSOPHIC SOCIETY" the Martinist Order had branches all over the world. In the 1890's the order had lodges in cities like London (U.K., 2 Lodges), Brussels, Antwerp (Belgium, 3 Lodges), Amsterdam, Muenich (Germany, 3 Lodges), Warschaw, St.-Petersburg (Russia, 2 Lodges), Vienna, Rome, Barcelona (Spain, 3 Lodges), New-York (USA, 37 Lodges), Quebec, Port Saïd, and countries like Panama, Cuba (1), Italy (8), Egypt (1), Argentina (7), Sweden (9), Denmark (1), Bohemia (1), Rumania (1), Switzerland (2), Tunesia (1), Colombia (1).

The following 'Martinist-memberlist' consists of the order's most famous members who were involved in occultism during a period otherwise known as the "La belle epoque";

Baron Spedalieri and Maria Rosa Tommasi (Italy), George Montière, Stevenard, Caminade, Gary de Lacroze (also a member of Péladan's "Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique et Esthetique du Temple et du Graal"), George Vitoux, Mdm de Wolska, M.Letoquart (New York), Julius Zeier and Gustav Meyrink (Lodge "Der Blauen Stern"), La Plata and Girgois (Argentina), René Philipon (better known under his pseudonym Jean Tabris), Emma Calvé (mistress of Jules Bois, honorary member), Marie-Anne de Bovet, Alfredo Eymerich de Aldao (Spain), Peter Davidson (co-founder of the "Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor"), Leopold Engel (Berlin, founder of the "World League" in 1893, co-founder of 'Union of German Occultists', co-leader "Ordo Illuminati"), Theodor Reuss (O.I, M.M., O.T.O.), Arnoldo Krumm-Heller ('active' in South-America,would later found the F.R.A. ), Alphonso de Wallen , Carl Michelsen and Carl William Hansen (Denmark, Hansen ,aka Ben Kadosh, was Grand Master of the Danish Martinists incl. the Kabbalistic Order of the Rose+Cross), Olga de Moussine-Puchkin, Levchine, Valerius Mouraviev-Amurski, Mdm Golovine (adorer of Raspoutin, all members of the lodge in St.Petersburg, Russia), Pierre Bardy, René Guénon, Demesthenos Verzato (Egypt), Clément de Saint-Marq (Belgium, also a member of Péladan's order and writer of i.a. "L'Eucharistie" ), Dr.Edouard Blitz ('Le Souverain Délégate' of the U.S.A.)

source : Marcel Roggemans, Belgium

Other well known Martinists - Novikov,Sar Hieronymous (Emile Dantinne), Eliphas Levi, A.E. Waite, H.P. Blavatsky, John Yarker, J.I. Wedgwood, Victor Blanchard, Honorè Balzac, Pamela Coleman Smith, Margaret Peeke, Czar Nicholas II of Russia, Emma Calve *, Harvey Spencer- and Ralph M.Lewis, Jollivet-Castelot, Joannie (Jean) Bricaud, Constant Chevillon, Robert Ambelain, Armand Toussaint, Robert Amadou, Jean Dubuis, Raymond Bernard, Emilio Lorenzo, …

Rosa Emma Calve was a famous French singer and was made a 'honorary member' of Papus' Ordre Martiniste on November 11, 1892 in Paris. She was also a friend of the priest Saunière (The "Rennes le Chateau" mystery) and mistress of Jules Bois. The friendship between Emma and Saunière is considered to be an "invention" of Pierre Plantard.

The document Emma received (a 'Diplome d'Honneur' ) can be found at

(- Rennes le Chateau -Emma Calve 'Superieur Inconnu' -)

(1) the "ASSOCIATION DES AMIS DE PÉLADAN" was founded in 1920 by Victor-Emile Michelet, as a 'circle of friends of Péladan'. The association was not an order. Its purpose was to study the works of Joséphin Péladan. Some of their members were ; Mdm Péladan, Gabriel Boissy, Albert de Pouvourville, G.L.Tautain, Edouard Willermoz, Maurice Venoize and Maurice Gallard.

Speaking of Péladan, not unimportant to know is that Joséphin Péladan was the Grand Master of the 'officially registered' "ORDER OF THE TEMPLE OF JERUZALEM", founded by Jacques de Molay. De Molay's first successor was a Jean-Marc de Larmeny (1314-1324). Péladan's presuccessor was H.M. Edward VII, Prince of Wales and King of England (1873-1910). Péladan's successor was H.M. Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany (1910-1915).

source: Marcel Roggemans, Belgium

In 1893, the Martinists of Lyon received the complete archives of J.B. Willermoz' C.B.C.S., 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte', and the archives of the ELUS COHEN temple of Lyon. Brother Cavarnier received the archives from the widow of Joseph Pont, the latter being the successor of Willermoz. Papus regarded the gift as an event of major importance.

In 1908 Papus, with the help of Detre (Papus' secretary) and Blanchard (secretary-general of the congress), organized the "The Masonic and Spiritualist Congress"

(' Congres Maconnique Spiritualiste' ) at the temple of the "DROIT HUMAIN" (French co--Masonic order, 'Ordre Macon Mixte le Droit Humain'), as stated before. One of the aims of the congress, in all probability, was to establish an international federation of esoteric (masonic) rites and orders. Victor Blanchard referred to it as "the first autonomous Congress of Occultism" in his opening discourse. We know that Papus had a dream to 'unite all orders' under one 'Universal Rite', so to speak. Papus' dream was never actually realized, due to the war which was at hand and his premature death.One of Papus' associates on the Congress, Theodor Reuss from Germany, organized a 'World Congress of Freemasons' in Zurich during the summer of 1920 which was analogous to the congress of 1908. Reuss' main objective was also to establish an 'International Union of Freemasons' (which -also- failed ; see "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I." and Peter R.Koenig's "Veritas Mystica Maxima or …" at

In my notes on Reuss' 1920 congress there's a reference (-Robert Vanloo) to Papus federation of orders, under the name of "Federation Maconnique Universelle".

In 1907 Rene Guenon is initiated into Martinism. Rene Guenon is recognized today as one of the great Christian mystics of the 20th century. Before Guenon became a member of the "Ordre Martiniste", he had taken several classes of one of Papus' organizations, probably the "ECOLE HERMETIQUE". He was also initiated into the "Antient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Mizraim" at the "Humanidad-Lodge 204" on October 25, 1907. On April 10, 1908 Guenon was raised to the 3th degree of Master Mason. Guenon also was also ordained as a Bishop of the Gnostic Church as Tau Palingénius . He was consecrated somewhere between 1907 and 1910, the exact date is unknown to me.

In 1908 on the ' Congres Maconnique Spiritualiste' Guenon was one of the members of the organization. Apparently Guenon left the audience when Papus expressed the concept of reincarnation in his openingspeech, because he considered this concept a false notion. At the congress Guenon received the 30* (Knight Kadosh) and 90* of the M.'.M.'. from Reuss.

Guenon came in conflict with Papus and his associates when Guenon and Victor Blanchard tried to establish a Templar order, "Ordre du Temple Rénové" of which Guenon would be the Grand Commandeur . On March 26, 1909, Papus 'forced' the Martinists to make their choice between Guenon's Templar order and the 'Ordre Martiniste'. The order was short-lived, and Guenon and his followers broke with Papus. Apparently, Blanchard 'broke' with Guenon as well. Guenon did not break with Masonry,on the contrary. At the times, René Guenon was also a close friend of Barlet, of whom Guenon received a considerable part of his knowledge of the teachings of such orders as the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor and the OKR+C. Barlet even entrusted Guenon with the insignia and documents of the OKR+C, Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix.

In 1925 Guenon meets a L.A. Charbonneau-Lassay. Through Charbonneau-Lassay he comes in contact with various isolated Christian-Hermetic groups. In 1927 Guenon contacted the "FRATERNITE DES POLAIRES" … (see Chapter "1908 – Fraternite des Polaires").

In 1911 Bricaud's "L'Eglise Gnostique Universelle" became the "official" church of the Papus' "Ordre Martiniste". The Supreme Council had issued a decree of recognition.

As mentioned before, The intention of the "Ordre Martiniste", as founded by Papus and Chaboseau, was to act as a preliminary order and gateway to Higher Degrees and teachings. We already have seen that many Martinists, who'd received the S:::I::: -degree, would join the OKR+C to study the Kabbalah and the Occult arts on a higher level (as mentioned before, Papus originally had the 'Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor' in mind for the purpose).

During Papus' lifetime there existed Martinist Lodges which conferred 'Higher Degrees of a para-Masonic character' (see "The Degrees and Rituals of the 'Ordre Martiniste' "). The desire of Papus and his associates was to return to the "veritable Martinism of the 18th. century", in other words, a Martinist Order consisting of 3 "exterior" Degrees, followed by Higher Degrees which incorporated the "Elus Cohen", and the curriculum of the OKR+C, and "Memphis-Misraim". Also incorporated was Joannie (Jean) Bricaud's " L'Eglise Gnostique Universelle" as the official church of the order.

In 1914 Papus and Teder (C.Detre) approached Dr.Ribeaucourt, Grand Master of the R.E.R., "Rite Ecossais Rectifié" (Scottish Rectified Rite). As stated before, the R.E.R. included Willermoz' "C.B.C.S". , 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte' , which had connections to Baron Von Hund's "Stricte Observance" (Willermoz had implemented the teachings of the E.C. within the rite of "Stricte Observance" in 1777).

They came to an agreement with Ribeaucourt to create a Martinist Grand Chapter, which would be composed exclusively of High Degree Masons. The Martinist Grand Chapter would act as a "bridge" between the O:::M::: and the R.'.E.'.R.'.

Unfortunately for the M:::O::: Grand Chapter, the war, the death of Papus in 1916, and especially the change of Grand Mastership of the R.'.E.'.R.'., brought an end to the initiative of Papus, Teder (Charles Détre), and Dr.Ribeaucourt

In 1914 Papus allegedly tried to establish connections with the "L'ORDRE DU LYS ET DE L'AIGLE " ( 'the Order of the Lily & the Eagle' ), founded in Egypt by Maria Routchine-Dupre, also known as Dea, with the help of Dimitri Sémélas-Déon. Eugéne Dupré was the head of the O:::M::: in Egypt. Dimitri Sémélas (Déon) was the founder of the Rose-Croix d'Oriënt (1912), and the initiator of Géorges Bogé de Lagrèze (see Chapter "1914 L'ORDRE DU LYS ET DE L'AIGLE").

Papus' whole life had been centered around the development of the Martinist Order. He created an order, the "Ordre Martiniste" ('L'Ordre des Supérieurs Inconnus' ),

he promoted Martinism all over the world and kept the order united during his lifetime. When Papus died in 1916, the unity of the order died with him … …

Charles Détre (Téder, 1855-1918) succeeded Papus as Grand Master of the O:::M:::

Not much is known about the short of Téder's 'reign'. We know that when Jean Bricaud succeeded Téder after his death in 1918 the unity of the order really bursted, but the succession of Papus by Téder was also disputed by several high-ranking Martinists. According to one source, in "l'Encyclopédie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ED. 2000", Papus even seem to have wished that Ernest Loiselle, the Librarian of the Supreme Council, would disband the Martinist Order !

Another 'curious' incident described in the 'l'Encyclopédie la Franc-Maconnerie' , is the appointment of Téder as Edouard Blitz's representative ! Blitz, who left the Martinist Order as Grand Master of the U.S.A., had founded his own order in 1902 (see "the M.O. abroad- America"). According to this source, Téder had also adapted Blitz' Rituals in French before succeeding as a G.M. of the "Ordre Martiniste". This source (R.A.) does not mention the date of the supposed adaption of Blitz' rituals.

We know for a fact that the definitive rituals of the "Ordre Martiniste" were written by Téder in 1913, and according to some sources Téder's version was based on the hand-written rituals of François-Charles Barlet (see "The Degrees and Rituals of the 'Ordre Martiniste' ").

The original intention of Papus and his associates was to create one central Order which unified all Occult orders in the spirit of John Yarker and Theodor Reuss.

The Martinist Order Papus created with its 'original' three degrees was ment as a preliminary order to "to prepare its members for entry into an Order that could confer an authentic initiation on those who showed themselves able to receive it ". In 1888 the "Higher Order", as foreseen by Papus, was the "Fraternité Hermétique de Louxor", the H.B.of L. Eventuelly, for reasons unknown to me, the "Higher Order" became the "Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix", the OKR+C.

In 1893 the Martinist Order had obtained the original archives of Willermoz' C.B.C.S. and the archives of the "Elus Cohen" of Lyon. Later on Papus also incorporated the Memphis-Mizraim rite into his organization-system. The whole 'Rite' was connected with the L'Eglise Gnostique Universelle, the Gnostic Church which acted as the "official"church of the "Ordre Martiniste", thus creating a Martinist Order which had High Degrees of an Occult character, which were connected with practical Kabbalah and Esoteric Masonry... At the end of his life Papus had created an order which reminded of the Martinism of the 18th century, a system which incorporated Occult High Degrees ::: :::

When Papus died the M*O* had more than 160 regular Lodges all over the world.



The M:::O::: Abroad


In 1901 Papus visited Russia, accompanied by his 'spiritual teacher", Maitre de Philippe (Anthelme Philippe Nizier, 1842-1905) from Lyon. Together they visited Czar Nicolas II of Russia. In 1900, supposedly, Maitre Philippe had already been in contact with Grand Duke Wladimir through Papus. Whether Papus did initiate the Czar is not sure, because Martinism had already been introduced in Russia by Prince Kourakine. Saint Martin's first propagandist in the 18th century was Johann Georg Schwarz, who was born in Transylvania and who sought to reorient the Russian (masonic) lodges on the basis of both the Rosicrucian system and Saint-Martin's Lyons Reformation. Saint-Martin's philosophy had been quit successful in Russia at the time , due to Saint-Martin's affinity with the theosophical philosophy of Jacob Böhme.

Kourakine had been initiated into Martinism by Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, when Kourakine represented his country in France as a diplomat. Kourakin introduced Martinism in Russia as the initiator of Nicolas Ivanovitch Novikov ( 1744 - 1818 ). Nicolai Novikov was a writer, publisher and dignitary of French Masonry and of the Rosicrucians (18th century German Gold-and Rosycross) in Russia.

Nevertheless it is quit possible that Papus initiated the Czar into his "Ordre Martiniste". According to James Webb in "the Occult Establishment", Papus installed the Czar as the head of a Martinist Lodge.

Papus served the Czar and his wife, Czarina Alexandra, both as physician and occult consultant. According to the "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas" Papus "allegedly conjured up the spirit of Alexandre III, Czar Nicholas' father, who prophesied that the Czar would meet his downfall at the hand of revolutionaires. Papus allegedly informed the Czar that he would be able to magically avert Alexander's prophesy so long as he was alive (Czar Nicholas was executed in 1917, 141 days after Papus' death). Papus would visit Russia again twice, in 1905 and 1906. "During their later correspondence, Papus warned the Czar and his wife a number of times against the influence of Rasputin. In 1910 Dr.Czinski is appointed Sovereign Delegate of the Russian Martinist Order. The advisor of State, Gregoire Ottonovich de Mébés presides over the opening of a new Lodge in St.Petersburg.



In America the Order was represented by Edouard Blitz, who was the "Souverain Délégate" for the 'Ordre Martiniste' in America. Blitz was born in Belgium and was a Jewish emigrant, descending from the 'old' Martinists. Blitz was also an initiate of the 'Chévaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte' and the 'Memphis-Misraim Rite'. He was the direct successor of the 'Elus Cohen', being the successors of Antoine Pont in America.On June 21, 1902 Blitz broke with the Martinists in France and founded the "AMERICAN RECTIFIED MARTINIST ORDER". It is said that Blitz did not want to be associated with a Martinist Order that had 'changed' to a quasi-Masonic rite. On June 2, 1902 a General Convocation was held in Cleveland, Ohio, where an official 'Manifesto' was issued by Blitz' Council. The 'American Manifesto' referred, amongst others, to certain hidden Grades within Blitz' Rite "which came out of that marriage between Martinism and the Rite of the Strict Observance", thus A.E.Waite in his 'Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry". After the foundation of the "Ordre Martiniste" with its three Degrees in 1891, through the years the O:::M::: would develop into an order which also conferred higher degrees upon their members. Being a 'regular' Mason himself, Blitz did not want to be associated with an order that could be considered clandestine by regular, legitimate Masonry. Blitz was replaced by Margaret B.Peeke, who was chosen by the 'Supreme Council'. After the 'American Manifesto' was published, the Supreme Counsil in Paris replied with an 'Edict from the East' which was published in a periodical called "Star in the East". The Edict 'rectified' certain decisions of the former President and his Delegates and furthermore there was an official announcement regarding Peeke's authorization as 'Inspectrice Générale de l'Ordre pour les Etats-Unis' (Inspectress-General).

Blitz' "American Rectified Martinist Order" was only accessible to Masons. Both branches became extinct in the first decades of the 20th century. Blitz proclaimed he held a direct lineage to De Pasqually and Saint-Martin, through the R.E.R. (Régime Écossais Rectifié" or "Rectified Scottish System), which included the C.B.C.S., and the "Ordre Interieure", which were transmitted by the 'Grand Priory of Helvetia' in Geneva, Switzerland. The date of Blitz' death is not known exactly. According to Papus' son, Philippe Encausse , Blitz died somewhere between 1920 and 1924. Another occultist which helped introducing Martinism to America was, as mentioned before, Peter Davidson of the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor. Davidson represented the "ORDRE MARTINISTE" during his 'American period' in the H.B.of L. colony in Georgia, USA. He also published a journal for the members of the Fraternite de L'Etoile, of which Davidson was the head of the American branch. Apparently this journal, the "Morning Star", acted as the official journal of the Martinist Order in America for a short period of time… As mentioned before, in 1909 the official Martinist journal in America is called "Treshold ".



Not much is known of the English Martinists at the time, except for some information A.E. Waite is giving in his book "A new Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry" (about 1920). According to Waite, The English Martinists broke with the Supreme Counsil in Paris for similar reasons as Blitz's. This happened "during the course of 1902", thus Waite. An "INDEPENDENT AND RECTIFIED RITE OF MARTINISM" was 'officially'constituted. The English "Rectified Rite" differed from Blitz' Rectified Rite by the fact "that it sought no recognition in Masonic circles and initiated both sexes. It remained, however, in full sympathy with the Rectified Order, as this was being propagated in America". The Rite made use of transmuted Rituals and was divided in Three Degrees ;




According to Waite, the English Rectified Rite appeared not to be successful and seemed "to have fallen asleep ..." Waite was, amongst others, a Martinist. He probably received his "initiation" by communication. Later on in his life, Waite went to Switzerland to receive initiation into the CBCS , through the help of Edward Blitz, himself a CBCS initiate . According to the introductory pamphlet of Trophimus' Rose-Croix Martinist Order (Greely, Colorado) Dion Fortune was also associated to Martinism ( Dion Fortune, member of Mather's "Alpha & Omega", after which she founded the "Society of Inner Light"). There also some 'evidence' that William Wynn Wescott (S.R.I.A., one of the founders of the "Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn) had received the S.I. degree. The following text is from R.A. Gilbert's "William Wynn Wescott and the Esoteric School of Masonic Research";


" A note of 1895 in John Yarker’s hand (now in The Yarker Library at Maida Vale) refers to ‘the English version of the Order of (Le Philosophe Inconnu) Louis Claude St. Martin in Three Grades ‘Ethical’ Translated by W. W. Westcott 1880/1893 from mss. of 1778’. The note adds that ‘Dr. W. W. Westcott, a member of the Three Grades of the ethical Order of St. Martin, has permission to give them, without fee to anyone he deems suitable’. This is clearly a reference to L’Ordre Martiniste, which was founded in 1884 by the French occultist Papus (Dr. Gerard Encausse) and the rituals of which were produced between 1887 and 1890. If Westcott was translating Martinist texts in 1880 they were unlikely to have been rituals" (R.A.Gilbert)



On May 9, 1898 a covenant was signed which confirmed an alliance between the Martinist Order and the Illuminati Order of Leopold Engel from Germany. One of the members of the I.O. was Reuss. Both reuss and Papus were members of the T.S. at the time.

On June 24, 1901 Papus chartered Theodor Reuss as Grand Master for Germany. The title Reuss received as Head of the German Martinists, was Inspecteur Spécial, I.'.M.'. , the original warrant ;

Ordre Martinist


Theodor Reuss

Par la Présente Le F.'. Theodor Reuss de Berlin est autorisé à Représenter L'ORDRE à titre de:

Inspecteur Spécial (I.'.M.'.) avec siège à Berlin

[24 Juin 1901] [sign. Papus]


Martinist Order

Theodor Reuss

by these presents Brother Theodor Reuss of Berlin is authorised to represent the ORDER under the title of: Inspector General (I.M.) with his seat at Berlin... 24th of June 1901 ... Papus."

It is said that Reuss used a visiting card during the war (14-18) which described him as A.C.Reuss "Honorary Professor at the High School for Applied Medical Science (University of France)". Reuss probably referred to Papus' centre for Higher Learning, one the institutions Papus had established. It seems that Papus' institutions for 'alternative' medical science at the time were known abroad. Another German living in South-America, Arnoldo Krumm-Heller, contacted Papus in 1897 for advise. Krumm-Heller, 18 years of age at the time, had discovered his abilities as a healer and a psychic at a young age. In 1906 he would take part in certain 'scent-experiments' under the leadership of Papus in Paris.

Papus made Krumm-Heller a 'Honorable Member' of the 'SUPREME CONSEIL d'INITIATION, ORDRE HUMANITAIRE ET SCIENTIFIQUE POUR LE DEVELOPEMENT DES ETUDES ESOTERIQUE DE l'ORIENT'. On Januari 24, 1908 an announcement is published in the first edition of Francois-Charles Barlet's spiritualistic journal "L'Etoile D'Orient - Revue de Hautes Etudes Psychiques" regarding the foundation of "Centre Esoterique Oriental de France".

In 1908 Krumm-Heller apparently was appointed one of the "Delegues Generaux de l'Ordre en Occident", as a delegate for Germany in Paris.

Barlet was the representative in France of a Albert de Sarâk, a well-known conjuror and swindler at the time. De Sarâk headed the "CENTRE ESOTÉRIQUE ORIENTAL". In 1902 he had founded the "Oriental Esoteric Center of the United States of America, under Obedience to the Supreme Esoteric Council of the Initiates of Tibet ". Krumm-Heller was already made a member of the "Initiates of Tibet" in 1902. Barlet joined in 1907, becoming its President for France. But Sarâk was under heavy attack from the esoteric community. Both Barlet and Krumm-Heller left the disreputable organization at the end of 1908.

Krumm-Heller was initiated in the "Ordre Martiniste" but the date is unknown (between 1905-1910 probably). It is stated that he was a Martinist (Membre Titulaire) of Lodge "Hermanubis" , registernumber 192 .


"Ein Leben fuer die Rose" Peter R. Koenig

At the end of the first decade Krumm-Heller started to establish Lodges in several countries of South-America under the jurisdiction of Papus. Krumm-Heller was also a member of the OKR+C. In 1927 he would found his own order, the " Antique Ordo Rosea Crucis", which is known today as the "FRATERNITAS ROSICRUCIANA ANTIQUA".



The first Martinist Lodges in Belgium were founded in 1892. Brussels' first and main lodge was Lodge 'KVMRIS'. The Lodge was lead by Francis Vurgey and Nicolas Brossel, the latter being its President. Evidently the Lodge also represented the Belgian branch of Papus' G.I.D.E.E. ( "Independent Group of Esoteric Studies" ). According to Koenig, the G.I.D.E.E. (its Belgian branch included) carried a line of succession of Fabré-Palaprat's "Order of the Temple" (1). The Templar-lineage is confirmed by several sources. As a matter of fact, some state that the KVMRIS-Lodge was directly linked to Fabré-Palaprat's Templar Order. After Fabré-Palaprat's death in 1838, the neo-Templar Order slowly died out under the direction of a small group of French and Belgian noblemen. According to these sources, the Orthodox Templar order died out, but some sort of 'Primitive Christian Church' ("Johannites") that was attached to the neo-templars continued its activities in secret. At first the members of the "Order of the Temple" had professed the Roman Catholic religion, but in or about the year 1814, Fabré-Palaprat had obtained possession of a manuscript copy of a "spurious Gospel of St.John, which is supposed to have been forged in the 15th century". Fabré-Palaprat used the Gospel, together with an introduction and commentary called the "Levitkon" which was said to have been written by Nicephorus, to compose a liturgy. The Order established a religious rite which they called "Johannism", or "Johannite Church". Their church propagated the idea of an "alternative" Apolostic succession from John through the Grand Masters of the Templars. When the "Order of the Temple" was disbanded, the "Johannite Church" continued its activities and it is said that out of this church, which was lead by French and Belgian noblemen, evolved a circle of men which would finally establish Lodge KVMRIS. The Gnostic elements which influenced the works of such lodge-members as Clement de Saint-Marcq were part of the doctrine of the Johannite church.

Papus payed several visits to Brussels by reason of profession. On May 25, 1892 Papus was invited as a guest of the ULB university ( Université Libre de Bruxelles ) on a conference of Hypnosis.Three days earlier, on May 22, Papus visited Lodge KVMRIS. Together with the Lodge-members Papus payed a visit to the statue of Van Helmont in Brussels (Jan Baptista Van Helmont, 1580-1644 ; Alchemist * ). After his visit to the conference at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Papus visited the Antwerp Lodge 'VISCVM', which was lead by Rosport, on May 26. Papus returned on the same day to Brussels where he met the mayor of the city at the time, M.Buls.

The Brussels Lodge 'KVMRIS' was very active in the last decade of the 19th century, until Verguy sended in his resignation to devote his time to personal research. Francis Verguy was also a member of Peladan's "ORDRE DE LA ROSE-CROIX CATHOLIQUE ET ESTHETIQUE DU TEMPLE ET DU GRAAL" and a friend of Emile Dantinne ('Sar Hieronymus'). At the time of the 'decline' of the Brussels Lodge, a new Lodge was established in Liége/Luik (near the Dutch- and German border in the east of Belgium) under the authority of Fievet. This was Lodge 'POLLUX'.

Rosport, who lead Lodge 'VISCVM', left Belgium and went to Congo (a Belgian colony at the time). Rosport died on Januari 10, 1895. One of the 'Secretaries' of Lodge 'KVMRIS' was Clément de Saint-Marcq (aka Georges Mickaël or Mikaël d'Ams).

Clément de Saint-Marcq was also a member of Peladan's Order (shortened, 'Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique du Temple et du Graal') and member of Doinel's Gnostic Church. Saint-Marcq was a 'chevalier' ('Knight') in Peladan's order. In 1906 Saint-Marcq's Gnostic text " L'Eucharistie" was published (2), a text which made a deep impression on Theodor Reuss. When Rosport left Lodge 'VISCVM' in Antwerp, Saint-Marcq became his successor. Meanwhile, Lodge 'KVMRIS' was disbanded. The Martinist movement in Belgium started to decline, soon many members would leave the order. Many of those who left joined the "Theosophical Society", with the exception of Fievet of Lodge 'POLLUX'.

In 1912 a Armand Rombauts received a charter from Papus' order to establish a Martinist-Lodge in Belgium. Rombauts purpose was to immediately establish a 'Grand Loge Nationale de Belgique' with the significant name "I.N.R.I.".Finally, in 1918 after the war was finished, The Martinist Order of Belgium became under the responsibility of Rombauts.

Rombauts would play a major role in the foundation of the F.U.D.O.S.I. in 1934. ('1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I.)

* Jan Baptista Van Helmond, a Flemish physician and Alchemist- follower of Paracelsus, was the first to postulate the existence of gases distinct from air. This brilliant Belgian scientist also showed that plants are composed only of water. His works were published posthumously in 1648 as Ortus Medicinae (his son).

(1) At the time of the foundation of Palaprat's Templar Order, there were many speculations on the origin of the order. Palaprat was convinced that the order was a direct descendent of De Molay's original Templar order. In "History of Freemasonry" (1882-1887), R.F.Gould writes "It is immaterial whether the French 'Order of the Temple' is a revival of 'La Petite Resurrection des Templiers,' -- a licentious society established in 1682 -- or an offshoot of the lodge 'Les Chevaliers de la Croix,' 1806......"

Many modern-day 20th century Templar-orders have a direct lineage to Palaprat's 'Order of the Temple' which was originally founded in 1804.

"L'Eucharistie" by 'Chevalier' Clément de Saint-Marcq , published in 1906. "The Eucharist' was considered by Theodor Reuss to contain the ultimate secret of the OTO, "the traditional practice of the sacred spermatophagia, glorified as being the sole method of seizing God, to unite with him, to live in a saintly perfection. God is the universal soul " (adapted from Saint-Marq). the complete text can be found at Peter Koenig's website at:

There exists another edition of the text, most probably the original version, the Pangenetor edition, dated Antwerp 1907 (this date is supported by a reference to the pamphlet by Reuss in his "Parsifal and the Unveiling of the Secret of the Graal"). The introduction of the Pangenetor edition is written by Jean Mallinger

"In May 1934, in a philosophical group which I was moderating at the time in Brussels, I officially invited a noteworthy visitor, a speaker of talent and a distinguished humanist. It was the Chevalier Clement de Saint-Marq, former Commander of the Place Forte d'Anvers (The Fortification of Antwerp) and director of an important spiritualist society.
He forwarned us that the subject of his lecture was important, sensitive and most certainly controversial; it would give rise to an exchange between resolutely contradictory viewpoints. Such proved indeed to be the case, and each remained steadfast in his opinions.The text of his expose' was published in pamphlet form and we are publishing here below its complete development.It will evoke curiosity with all, anger with some and prudent approbation with others. Here it is. We shall speak of it again!"
Jean Mallinger, Esq.
Richard Jessel and Frater Y.V., Translation
Pangenetor Lodge Publications 1995
(source : M.Evans/Malwgwyn)


The Degrees and Rituals of the 'Ordre Martiniste' and the Martinist Seal

In March 1891 the SUPRÉME CONSEIL DE L'ORDRE MARTINISTE was officially installed and a Martinist order under the name of "ORDRE DES SUPÉRIEURS INCONNUS" was founded.The Martinist Order presented itself as "Order of Christian- or Spiritual Knighthood ". The "ORDRE DES S.'. I.'. " consisted of three Degrees.

Whatever the truth is, there are no official documents or papers which proves the existence of a historical Martinist Order lead by Louis Claude de Saint-Martin. All statements and 'proof' regarding the 'original' Martinist Order of Saint-Martin rested on the authority of Papus. Both Papus and Chaboseau claimed to be initiated as a Martinist. Papus by Delaage, and Chaboseau by de Boise-Mortmart.

Papus stated regarding his "initiation" that all that he ever received were some letters and some points. Papus evidently refers to the S.'.I.'. , of which he created the Martinist "Labarum " , a symbol comprised of the letters S and I, an equilateral Cross, and six dots (2*3 dots)



"a simple gift consisting of 2 letters and some dots, a summary of a doctrine of Initiation and the 'Trinity' which had illuminated all the works of Delaage"



"The opposition of the 2 Letters, and the opposition of the 2 Triangles reveal to every perspicacious eye, the 2 Columns in their active (letters) and their passive (points) opposition ; verical and horizontal opposition ; the key of the symbolism of the Cross"

Papus speaks highly of his initiatior Delaage, who's, to say the least, not well known in the occult circles of today. Henri Delaage wrote a number of books of which "Doctrine des Sociétés Secrètes", published in 1852, is probably the most well-known.

Papus exchanged initiations with Chaboseau, the reason being an uncertainty about one of the "initiated" in the lineage of Papus (it was unknown who initiated Henri Delaage). This statement was made by Chaboseau himself in an interview by Gerard van Rijnberk, published in his book on Martinez de Pasqually.

When we take a look at what Pierre-Augustin Chaboseau has to say about his Initiation into Martinism, it becomes clear that before the existence of the "Ordre Martiniste" as founded by Papus, the followers of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin did not make use of an elaborate Initiation-ritual, as a matter of fact, there (probably) existed no such thing as a written ritual including instructions etc. at all.

Chaboseau on his initiation by his aunt, Amélie de Boise-Mortmart ;

The Initiation consisted of an "oral transmission of a particular teaching and a certain comprehension of the laws of the Universe and of Spiritual life, which, in no case could be regarded as an Initiation in a ritualistic form"

(Jean Chaboseau in "L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie", ed. 2000)

Chaboseau is very clear in his statement when he sais that the 'initiation' "in no case could be regarded as an Initiation in a ritualistic form".

Furthermore, Chaboseau stated that most of the oral teachings he (and Papus) received were written down in a notebook. These teachings became the basis of the Associate-degree (1st degree) of the O*M* (and, according to Elias Ibrahim, in the original French T*M*O*, Ordre Martiniste Traditionelle, which was lead by Chaboseau until his death in 1946). By the way, Jean Chaboseau (son of A.Chaboseau..) apparently stated, after the Supreme Council voted against Jean Chaboseau's nomination as Grand Master of the Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel, that his father's filiation through Amélie of Boisse-Mortemart did never exist !!!

source: website "Les Maitres Passes" -'Groupements ou Ordres' at

Outside the Martinist order(s), Papus' Ordre Martiniste is often looked upon as an independent established organization, and not a continuation of the original Société des Intimes" (Society of Friends), followers of Saint-Martin, and/or De Pasqually's "Elus Cohen". With regard to "Martinezism" even most of the Martinist Orders do not claim any filial authenticity. Famous French Martinist Robert Amadou stated in his publication "Documents Martinistes"

"Nobody, to our knowledge, holds today the Cohen succession, neither within any Order, nor in an individual way". One could add to Amadou's statement that there is a "historical" connection between the ELUS COHEN and the R.E.R. of today ("Régime Écossais Rectifié" or "Rectified Scottish System").

"Because of the underlying Elu Kohen = Martinist theory derived from DE PASQUALLY, the R.É.R. has always been considered as ‘the other side of the Martinist mountain’, despite of its modern masonic warrants (from Switzerland)".

Marc Jones "What is B.B.C.S.? What is R.E.R."

We know that Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin did not confer any degrees or made use of any system. He (probably) used a form of initiation which is known as 'personal

Initiation'. Saint-Martin employed the biblical "laying on of hands" upon the initiate.

"The only initiation which I preach and seek with all the ardour of
my soul is that by which we may enter into the heart of God and make God's heart enter into us, there to form an indissoluble marriage, which will make us the friend, brother, and spouse of our Divine Redeemer. There is no other mystery to arrive at this holy initiation than to go more and more down into the depths of our being, and not let go until we can bring forth the living, vivifying root, because then all the fruit which we ought to bear, according to our kind, will be produced within us and without us naturally". ( ( LC de Saint-Martin )

The actual 'Initiation' did not employ any kind of ritual or 'form'. It is generally believed that Saint-Martin performed a simple personal initiation upon his disciples, nothing elaborate. In Martinism this process is referred to as "transmission". But this is something we presume, because there's no public proof available "that anything of this kind transpired, neither from the pen of Saint-Martin nor from any of his admireres, who numbered in the thousands throughout Europe" ("Martinist Initiation" by Sar Ignatius). Supposedly, Saint-Martin's initiation conferred the quality of "Unknown Superior", S.'.I.

However, as mentioned earlier, both Papus and Chaboseau stated that Louis Claude de Saint-Martin had intended to establish a rite of seven degrees in 1780 (see"1891- Ordre des Supérieur Inconnus"). Again, the claim rests solely on the authority of both Papus and Chaboseau.

When the Martinist Order was 'officially' established in 1891, the "Ordre des S.'.I.'." was comprised of three Degrees. There's some confusion about the actual "1891- title" of the third Degree concerned. In general, the sources will present the following names of the degrees ;





A.E. Waite's "Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry" * presents the following degrees, in English ;





* At the time of publication, at the beginning of the 20th century, Waite's "Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry" was sabled down by the Masonic scholars for its 'inaccuraties', amongst others. A.E. Waite was a member of the "Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn" and later founded his own ( Christian-Kabbalastic) version of it, the "Fellowship of the Rosy Cross". In 1902 he joined Freemasonry. Waite wrote numerous books on Hermetic subjects and is considered doubtful as a researcher by many of his 'colleagues'...

The last source i'll mention, is Edouard Blitz' "Ritual and Monitor of the Martinist Order" of 1896. This publication was 'officially' recommended "to the favor of the Brethren of the Martinist Institution wherever dispersed" by the President and Secretary of the Supreme Council of 1894 in Paris, Dr.Papus and Jacques Burg. Therefore it's a valuable and reliable historical referencebook concerning the Martinist rituals, symbolism, and doctrines as used (probably) by the O*M* at the time. Blitz speaks of a Martinist system of Degrees which through its history has been reduced into "three essential" and "four accessory Degrees of application". In his "Tableau of the transformations of the Martinist Rite", Blitz refers to three Rites which preceded the "Martinist Order- Modern Rite", as Blitz calls the O*M*. These rites were The Elus Cohen of Pasqually (1750), the Rectified Rite of Saint-Martin (1767) and the Refor'd Ecossism of Saint-Martin, as practised in Germany in 1782, thus Blitz.

Blitz' 3 'essential' Degrees are (as worked in France in 1887) ;

ASSOCIATE (Philosophic)


S:::I::: (Kabbalistic)

S:::I::: (Administrative)

As one notices, Blitz also mentions the "Administrative-Degree" (S:::I::: -Administrative), as a side-degree. This was given to S.I.-members, who were willing to help their Lodge on a 'administrative-level'. The mentioning of the "S.I. Aministrative Degree" undermines (at least on paper) the general assumption within the 'Martinist-movement' that the 'Administrative-Degree' did not exist at the time of Papus ; "1975 12 20, the administrative rank of S.I.G.I is removed, since it was not existing at the time of Papus" ( 'Probationary Degree- text of instruction' 24 pages, addressed to the M*O* of Chile by the President of the M*O* of Paris).

The first three degrees belonged to the "First Temple". Blitz also refers to Degrees belonging to the "Second Temple". This 'proves' that there already existed (again, at least on paper) Higher Degrees within the "Ordre Martiniste", before the foundation of the Supreme Council of the O.'.M.'. These "accessory Degrees of application" were ;

Vth Degree

VIth Degree

VIIth Degree

Blitz does not 'name' them, he just refers to these grades as being the fifth, sixth, and seventh Degree. Could these degrees refer to the grades of the "Fraternité Hermétique de Louxor", the H.B.of L. , as was Papus' original intention ? This is, of course, just a speculation. It also could be a referrence to the "Elus-Cohen" degrees, who knows (Blitz was, after all, the successor of the E.C. for America).

The 'Martinist system of -essential- degrees', as worked within the "Ordre Martiniste", is in fact one 'Initiation' divided into three parts. As mentioned before, Saint-Martin only 'spoke' about one initiation, the 'Supérieur Inconnu' .The first two degrees are a 'preparation' for the third Degree, the S.I. -Degree. According to Papus, "there is only one Degree, that of S.I." The aim of the Martinist was (and is) to awaken the Conscience and finally achieving interior harmony. The method used within the 3 degrees of the O*M*, as mentioned before, was (and is) known as "The Way of the Heart". More on this method can be found at :

"Way of the Heart" , a discourse on the Martinist-Philosophic Method written by Papus.

After receiving the S.I. Degree the Martinist was empowered to found a group. He/She was pledged solely to conceal the name of his/her Initiator.

Another interesting historical document regarding the Martinist Degrees at the time of Papus is the so-called "PROTOCOL OF THE UNION OF MARTINIST ORDERS ", a document dated Sunday, the 28th day of October, 1962. The protocol announced the union of Philippe Encausse's "O.M" (Ordre Martiniste) and Robert Ambelain's "Ordre Martiniste des Elus-Cohens" and was officially signed by the two Grand Masters, Encausse Jr. and Ambelain. Of particular interest is the refference in the document to a certain volume of the official Martinist review L’Initiation, dated 1911. Apparently, the review published the "General Rules and Regulations of the Respected Lodge Melchisedech No. 208". Melchisedech No.208 was the name of a Martinist Lodge in Paris at the time, "under the direct dependence of Papus" . Among the high officers were, next to papus, men like " Teder, Targelius (Victor Blanchard), and Librarius (Ernest Loiselle)", which conferred "upon all the acts and decisions of this particular Lodge an official and incontestable character". Apparently, this Lodge conferred also higher Degrees. These degrees were connected with practical Kabbalism, Christian Gnosis, as well as to Spiritualist Masonry (Memphis-Misraim).

Lodge Melchisedech conferred the following Degrees (1911):

- The "classical" Philosophic degrees of Martinism



Unknown Superior

Free Adept

The 4th grade, "Free Adept", corresponds with the modern grade of "Free Initiator ", otherwise known as S.I.I. or S.I. IV. It seems likely to presume that the ordinary S.I. was not empowered any longer to found a group on his/her own at the time …

The degrees of the OKR+C (Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix), "Bachelor", "Master" and "Doctor" of Kabbala, were reserved only for the high degrees of the Masonic Rite of Memphis-Mizraim (above the 33rd Degree). The 'system of Degrees' of the O*M*, as practised at Lodge Melchisedech No.208 in 1911, proved to be an elaborate- and intricate system (and pompous) including Higher Degrees " of an infinitely more Occult character than those usually known". The M.M. Degrees beneath the 33rd Degree (equal to the Scottish Rite), "Secret Master" (4th), "Grand Pontiff" or "Sublime Scottish" (19th) and "Sovereign Grand Inspector General" (33rd), were equivalent to the Martinist degrees of "Initiate", "Unknown Superior" and "Free Adept". The document regarding Teder's Martinist Ritual of 1913 also refers to several Elus Cohen Degrees which were equivalent to the Martinist Degrees Initiate and S.I. The complete text of the document concerned can be found at:

or at:



Mike Restivo (Sar Ignatius, Initiatèur Libre)

The Martinist Order is organized, in general, on the Lodge-system (the actual word "Lodge" can be traced back to the days of the guilds in medieval Europe). This 'system' is derived from Freemasonry, as we all know. As Sar Ignatius from the Rose+Croix Martinist Order in Canada explains ;

"After having been found sincere and desirous of study of the principles of the Order, a candidate successively progresses through three Degrees or Grades: Associate, then Initiate, then Unknown Superior. The education is given in person during meetings called Conventicles. A simple ritual of opening and closing the group called a Heptad (7 members minimum) or a Lodge (21 members minimum) is employed. Smaller groups called Circles with a very simplified opening and closing ceremony, permit less than the minimum to study the Martinist principles"

and ;


"The Lodge system provides a psychological environment to encourage the perception and appreciation of higher spiritual principles" ,thus Sar Ignatius in his article "Martinist Initiation"

the complete text can be found at ;

this system was also applied during the reign of Papus.


' The government of the Order is vested in three bodies, named respectively, in the order of their rank, Supreme Coucil, Grand Council, and Lodge'

' The authority of the Supreme Council, residing in Paris, France, is absolute'

Source; Edouard Blitz 1896.

The M*O* did not pretent to have some sort of secret teachings at its disposal. It's doctrine was based on the works Saint-Martin, Martinez de Pasqually, Boehme, and all the theosophers, occultists and mystics who were inspired by them. It teached 'all matters considered useful to its purpose, in particular the doctrine of the universal Reintegration'.

The Martinist Rituals


Many sources state that at the beginning of Papus' O*M* the rituals existed in outline only, "as certain heads of procedure, and each initiator had the duty of amplifying them according to his/her best lights", as one source states.

As mentioned before, Chaboseau himself stated that the initiation he had received in 1886 "in no case could be regarded as an Initiation in a ritualistic form". It is generally assumed that the followers of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin did not make use of an elaborate Initiation-ritual. This is in contradiction to the assumption of Papus, Blitz etc. that there existed a Martinist Order of Saint-Martin of 7 Degrees in the 18th century (Blitz speaks about 7 degrees belonging to the 'First Temple' and another 3 degrees belonging to a 'Second Temple' ), but, as stated a couple of times before, there exists no historical proof for their claims.

A.E. Waite states that "Between 1887 and 1890 he (Papus) produced Rituals for the Order, arranged in three Degrees, which I have praised on several occasions for their sincerity, simplicity and reserve in respect of claims". Somewhere else in the same text Waite states that "the mode adopted (initiation) was usually that which is known technically as "communication," that is to say, personally and not in Lodge or Temple. To my certain knowledge reception was arranged even by post".


Another source, a Martinist Manual called "Administrative and technical information for Lodge Officers" from ICES provides the following information on the 'original' rituals, as used by Papus in the 1890's. The actual text stems from Clive Culbertson S.I. from Ulster and can be found on his website at:

" Martinism grew and spread under the guidance of Papus. He added two degrees before the superior degree to serve as chambers of instruction and probation. The first degree, that of associate is said to come from Cagliostro's Egyptian Masonic Rite and the second degree, that of Mystic, from Willermoz's Knights Beneficent of the Holy City (C.B.C.S)".

In a private correspondence on the source of his information regarding the original rituals Clive stated :

"When we started our Heptad here in 91 (I think) I got the manual "Administrative and technical information for Lodge Officers" from ICES now ICOMS* in Barbados.The info was in a question and answer thing in there.The 3rd initiation came from the Order of Unknown Philosophers and was divided into 2 parts, half given at S.I. and the other half at P.I..As I understand it, the Order of Unknown Philosopher's initiation is the actual initiation that the Martinist Order was created to perpetuate and is it's raison d'etre".

ICOMS (or ICOM) stands for "International College of Martinist Studies" . The college (it's not an Order!) changed its name in course of time to ICES / "International College of Esoteric Studies" , for more information, take a look at their website at:

The oldest document I've seen (until this day) with regard to the Martinist system of degrees and rituals is Blitz' "Ritual & Monitor of the Martinist Order", which was published especially for the "English speaking community" for the first time in 1896. The recommendation written by Papus at the beginning of the book is dated December 1894.

The book is a manual for the functioning of a Martinist Lodge including a complete outline of the rituals, the symbols which are used and their meanings, the regulations of a set-up of a Martinist temple etc.

The rough outline of the rituals are similar to the ones I've received (late 20th century) as a member of the Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas . The major difference between the 1894 "versions" and the ones a Martinist will receive today is the extensiveness of the rituals from 1894. Here's an excerpt from the 1894 'Initiation-Ritual' of the first Degree, the 'Associate' degree, in which the 'dramatic feel' to impress the candidate is illustrated ;

UNKNOWN BROTHER : "The Sun arises! As the shadows of the night vanish, so let the veils that hide the Divine truth be torn away!

UNKNOWN PHIL.: (strikes 3 knocks slowly)

UNKNOWN BROTHER: (strikes 3 knocks slowly)

BRO.INITIATE: (strikes one knock)

The above dialogue is so timed that the Candidate begins the 6th tour when 7 knocks have been sounded. Arriving at the station of Bro. Associate, the procession halts, and Bro.Associate, plunging the right arm of the Candidate into a box filled with sand, says:

" In the beginning God created the Heaven and the Earth, and the Earth was without Form and Void".

Another interesting source is Kjetil Fjell from the O.T.O. -researchgroup "Academia Masonica Borealis" in Norway. In his article called "Rites mentioned in Liber 52" Kjetil tells us that the Martinist rituals were originally developed by Stanislas De Guaita.

"The rituals originally developed by Guaita focused on a Symbology of Light in which the number three played an important role. In the first Grade, which was called La Affiliè, the candidate was lead into a room in which three pillars with different colours were placed. Between these pillars a huge candle was handed over. This Triad, in connection with the number four (quatarnity) would in the Second Grade (La Initiè), as well as in the Third Grade (la Initiateur), be further harmonically developed. The Candidate would in these Grades learn more about The Fall and the strenghtening of humanity ,as in the teachings of Pasqual and Saint-Martin. In the highest Degree (The Third), followed the -- -forsoning- between the Created and the Creator, as well as the Unio Mystica of the elder Gnostics and Alchemists. The Initiate also saw the masked men who silently pointed their swords at his chest. They wore an old Egyptian headdress. The candidate had to sit down on a chair placed before a whitedraped altar. On the altar was placed burning candles. In front of the altar lay three carpets on which a Sphinx, Mask and a dagger was embrodded".

A.M.B. Kjetil Fjell "Rites mentioned in Liber 52"

When I compared Kjetil's information with Blitz' "Ritual & Monitor of the M.O" I've found several similarities between the two sources.

For instance when Kjetil states " The Candidate would in these Grades learn more about The Fall and the strenghtening of humanity ,as in the teachings of Pasqual and Saint-Martin" , One finds this doctrine throughout the whole story-line of the Initiation into the first degree as used by Edouard Blitz. Kjell also refers to " the masked men who silently pointed their swords at his (candidate) chest". In Blitz' "Ritual & Monitor" we read on page 32 :

"Here the blindfold of the Candidate is raised and he beholds him, amidst red and green flames, the Brothers threatening him with their swords, some of them wearing hideous masks (not grotesque); all seem ready to take the life of the Candidate …"

"INITIATION -First Degree. Associate" 1896

I've found no traces of the (fysical) three pillars in the "Blitz-versions" in the first Degree, although they were 'present' , symbolized by the three Cressets in Blitz' version ;

"In fine, the three Cressets, true flambeaux of universal knowledge, symbolize also the three great Pillars of Kabbalah upon which rests the Universe, intellectual and physical: Beauty, Strength, and Wisdom"

"INITIATION -First Degree. Associate" 1896, "DISCOURSE OF THE ORATOR" (Symbolism)

The Pillars are mentioned in the S.I. Initiation Degree in the manual, were the two Columns are placed on the platform situated in the Martinist temple. The Lodge-room was divided in three apartments in the 2nd and 3th Degree of Initiation. In the 2nd Degree the first apartment was lighted, the other two were darkened. In the 3rd degree the third apartment was darkened, the other two lightened …

As stated earlier, Papus apparently added two degrees before the superior degree to serve as chambers of instruction and probation. The "Ordre Martiniste" aka "Ordre Martinist de Paris" provides the following information on the 'value' of the degrees (freely transl. from French);

"The first Initiation which the O.M. transnmits initially connects the elect member temporarily with the Martinist chain. The first degree is a probational-degree. The second Initiation is an initiation into a preparatory degree and the third connects a Brother or Sister finally to the Martinist égrégore and the Martinist chain"

The main symbols used in the Martinist rituals and workings are the Mask (symbol of Silence and Secrecy), Mantle (color -black, symbol of Prudence), and the Universal Pentacle. The main focus is placed on the symbolic Trinitarian structure with its ' three points of Light' (as in many of the occult and mystic organizations). The three Cressets symbolize i.a. the three 'pillars' and they also stand for 'God', 'man', and 'Nature'.

The rituals are influenced by Masonry, especially Templarism. The influences from Templarism can be traced back to Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund's (1722-1766) STRIKTE OBSERVANCE (La Stricte Observance Templière) through Willermoz' C.B.C.S. (see "short profile on J.B.Willermoz" ).

The Martinist Order accepts (obviously) a "creation-principle", which is symbolized by the Masonic abbreviation A.'.L.'.G.'.D.'.G.'.A.'.D.'.L..'.U.'. which stands for "A la Gloire du Grand Architect de L’Univers".

The definitive Rituals* of the "Ordre Martiniste" were written by Téder in 1913, and according to some sources Téder's version was based on the hand-written rituals of François-Charles Barlet (Sar Anael, G.M. of the Spanish Martinist Order, founded in 1987. The Spanish Order uses the Téder-version of 1913). Other sources (like R.A. in his/her L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ed. 2000) state that Téder used the rituals from Blitz, but I'm not certain if R.A. refers to the '1913 rituals' in his statement.

From 1913 on the order worked with four degrees which were named Associé, Associé Initié, Superieur Inconnu, and Superieur Inconnu Initiateur. The rituals were published by Dorbon-Aîné, and are obtainable from a specialized book-shop.

* source; Marcel Roggemans (from a correspondence with Sar Anael from the Spanish OM*)



The Seal of the O*M* is the the symbol of the Universal Pentacle, the Hexagram in a Cirle, together with the equilateral Cross and the Hexagon. According to the O*M* it was designed by Saint-Martin as an explanation of the Universe. Here's what Blitz' manual has to say on its symbolism ;

Taken from "Ritual & Monitor of the O:::M::: " , 1896

" God, the First Principle of the Universe, is represented by a Circle, Symbol of Eternity".

"The action of Eternity, passing from latent power into Action, is symbolized by the mystic relation of the center to the circumference; by the radius projected six times around the Circle, which produces the Hexagon, emblemetical of the Six Periods of Creation".

"The central point forms the Seventh Period, that of Rest". (The Center has attracted the upper triangle and the lower triangle, both of which, reacting on one another, have manifested Life -L.C. de Saint-Martin from his book "on Numbers")

"Let us remark that Nature, the Seal of Solomon (represented by the two triangles- one Ascending, One Descending, the currents of Involution and Evolution), does not reach God, but only the Creative Forces emanating from Him. From the center of the Universe to God Himself (Circle) the power of Man originates, uniting the effects of Divinity to the fatalism of Nature in the Unity of his Free Will, symbolized by the Cross, uniting the center of the Universe (Human Soul) to God Himself. This is the explanation of the most complete synthetic figure the genius of Man ever discovered. It explains all the mysteries of Nature, and is true as well in physics as in metaphysics; in natural sciences as in theology; it is the seal that unites Reason and Faith, Materialism and Spiritualism, Religion and Science" DISCOURSE OF THE ORATOR, 3TH DEGREE


The following explanation is taken from Saint-Martin's book "on Numbers" ;

"The natural Circle has shaped itself in a different way from the geometrical circle. The center has attracted the upper triangle and the lower triangle, both of which, reacting on one another, have manifested Life.

It is then that the quadruple Man appeared. It would be impossible to find this quadruple priciple in the circle without tracing lost or superfluous lines, if we are limiting ourselves to the methods of mathematics.

Nature looses nothing: it coordinates all parts of its works, the one with the other. So, in the Circle regularly drawn by Nature, we can see the two triangles, uniting to determine the emancipation of Man in the Universe and Man's place in relation to the divine center.

We can see [in the symbol of the Pantacle] that the Light receives Life only by the reflections surging from the opposition that the True receives from the False; that the Light receives it from the Darkness; and that Life, in matter, always depends upon both actions. We see that the fourfold Man embrases the six directions of the Universe, and that those [six] regions, being bound two by two [in the triangles], the power of Man operates within a triple fourfold in the location of his glory.

Here are manifested the laws of this superb knowledge, of which the Chineese have left us some traces, I mean the knowledge of the keou-kou. Man, by giving in to guilty incitations, has left the divine center, where he was originally placed; but even though he has left it, the center is still at its place, as it cannot be moved by any force at all. (Sedes tua in seculum seculi. Ps. 14:7)

So, since Man has left his glorious post, it is the Divinity that is ready to replace him and to operate for him, in the universe, that same Power of which he has been dispossessed by his mistake. But when the Divinity takes the place of Man, it is dressed in the same colors, and is attached to the material regions, where Man was originally established, as it is impossible to appear at the center of this circle without being placed at the midst of all those regions.

Here is what the study of the natural circle can reveal to the intelligent eye. The figure represented, although imperfect, can indicate the way.




Below ; MARTINIST HEADER (with Seal),

as used by the Martinist Order(s)* around the world


The O*M* after 1916

The "original" order 'ended' with the death of Gérard Encausse ( Papus ) in 1916. As mentioned earlier in this text Papus even seem to have wished that Ernest Loiselle, the Librarian of the Supreme Council, would disband the Martinist Order ! ( source, R.A. in "l'Encyclopédie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ED. 2000" ). Whatever the truth is, Charles Détré (Téder) suceeded Papus as Grand Master of the O*M*. From 1916 on the 'original' Martinist Order, as founded by Papus and Chaboseau, would split up in several branches due to disagreements, disputes over 'authorization' etc., between the members of the original Supreme Coucil of 1891 (between those who were members of the supreme council in 1916, of course). When Téder wanted to initiate only masons into the O*M*, many members protested against his intentions.


Téder died in 1918 (September 26), just two years after Papus' death (October 25, 1916). Generally it is stated that there were two men who actually could be considered as the successor of Téder as G.M of the M*O*, Victor Blanchard and Jean Bricaud. Blanchard was Téder's deputy. The whole story of Téder's succession can be found in the "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I." -series, in "Addendum 6 -Victor Blanchard". The series is published on the internet at :

most of the information is derived from an article by Elias Ibrahim, "Victor Blanchard - a brief Summary of his Life and his Work" , taken from the website of the "Ancient Martinist Order" at :

"in the absence of well established rules regarding the nomination or succession of a Grand Master, it is impossible to say wether Bricaud or Blanchard was the legitimate Grand Master".

Whatever the truth is, history tells us that Jean Bricaud became the successor of Téder as Grand Master of the Martinist Order in 1918. When Charles Barlet was asked by one of his pupils who the true successor of Téder was, he answered him that Martinism was"a circle whose circumference was everywhere and the center nowhere ". Robert Ambelain, "Le Martinisme" page 150.

With Jean Bricaud acting as Grand Master of the M*O* the unity of the order really bursted …

"Bricaud (born in 1881) already held a high position within the O*M* at the end of the first decade of the 20th century. In 1907 Bricaud, with the help of Papus and other Martinists, broke with the L’ Eglise Gnostique Universelle Catholique and founded, together with Papus and Fugairon, the L’Eglise Catholique Gnostique’ (see "1890 -Ecclessia Gnostica .."). In 1908 the church changed its name to the L’Eglise Gnostique Universelle’ , and in 1911 the L’Eglise Gnostique Universelle’ became the 'official church' of the Martinist Order. Bricaud was also initiated into the Memphis-Misraim rite and he was a disciple, like most of the leading Martinists at the time, of Master Philippe. He studied the rites of Willermoz and Pernety, the Elus Cohen, Stricte Observance, les Philalèthes, and les Philadelphes. In 1911 he helped Téder and Edouard Blitz (1) in developing "new ideas" with relation to the recruitment of members. In 1914 Bricaud established a 'Martinist movement' based on the ideas of 1911. These ideas were based on the rules of Willermoz and his successor, Antoine Pont (Blitz was Pont's successor in the U.S.A., Téder and Fugairon were the successors in France), which were the rules of the C.B.C.S., 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte', which included the rites of the Elus Cohen.

In 1914 Téder appointed Bricaud Légat of the Order for the provence of Lyon (Bricaud lived in Lyon). At the time (1914) Bricaud is Grand Master of the Memphis-Misraim Rite, Vice-Chancellor of the Ordre Martiniste Rose Croix (?), Patriarch of the église Gnostique Universelle, and président of the S.O.I., Société Occultiste Internationale" (see "1916 L’Ordre Martiniste de Lyon) source ; articles from L'INITIATION 1952 up to 1958


Although Blitz had left the Martinist Order as Grand Master of the U.S.A., after which he'd founded his own (masonic) Martinist-rite in 1902 (see "the M.O. abroad- America"), he obviously did not sever all his ties with France ! Blitz apparently corresponded with men like Téder and Bricaud, even after his 'withdrawal' from Papus' M*O*. On the other hand this seems quite plausible. Téder and Blitz were both the heirs to Willermoz' legacy, and they both propagated a masonic requirement with regard to membership into the Martinist order. Another interesting subject for discussion is R.A. 's remark in his book "L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ed. 2000", where he states that Téder had adapted Blitz' rituals (see "Ordre des S.I." and "Martinist Rituals…") before succeeding Papus as Grand Master of the O*M*. The information presented here by both sources sheds a new light on the whole issue, especially when the other source are documents and articles which were published between 1952 and 1958 in the Martinist review l'Initiation.

Martinist Lines of Succession

From 1918 onwards newly founded Martinist Orders appeared on the international esoteric scene. These organizations can be traced back through its line of Succession. Already in the beginning of the 20th century there existed at least 5 different lines of succession.

The first Line was the lineof Papus and Chaboseau which resulted in the O*M* of 1891 (year in which the first Martinist Supreme Council was installed). The second Line was a line of Succession which we will call the "Russian Lineage" .

The first Line (Papus, Chaboseau) had three different branches :

Téder ( Charles Henri Détré )

Victor Blanchard

Augustin Chaboseau

These three branches originated after Papus' death in 1916. Each branch had its lineage from which orders were formed. Today all these different Martinist lineages recognize each other and all the different martinist organizations maintain a close relationship with each other (except for the T.M.O, the "Traditional Martinist Order" of A.M.O.R.C., which does not recognize other Martinist orders ).

There were several other Lines of succession, which resulted in new orders. To name a few - the Line of Edouard Blitz, and the Line of Arnoldo Krumm-Heller (who initiated many Martinists in South-America at the beginning of the 20th century). Of course there are other (even older) "lineages" existing, like for instance the "Italian Line" of Kremmerz, but it's almost impossible to name them all (just think of all the so-called "free-Martinists", who initiated new members into Martinism outside of any organization).

Later on in the 20th century another lineage originated from Philippe Encausse, Papus' son. The big picture of the Martinist Lines of succession is a complex structure of several different lineages, which sometimes are entwined with each other.

But the most 'important' (originating in Papus' M*O*) "Lines of succession" are ;

Gérard Encausse ( Papus ), Charles Détré, Lucien Chamuel ( Mauchel ), Victor Blanchard ( Sar Yésir ) ( Targelius ), Augustin Chaboseau, Georges Bogé de Lagrèze, Robert Ambelain ( 1907 - 1994 ? ), Gerard Kloppel and Ronald Capello ( USA )

Gérard Encausse ( Papus ), Charles Henri Détré (Téder )( 1855 - 1918 ), Jean Bricaud 1881 - 1934 ), Constant Chevillon (1880 - 1944 ), Charles-Henry Dupont (1877 - 1961 ), Philippe Encausse (1906 - 1984 ), d’Irénée Séguret ( 1903 - 1992), Philippe Encausse, Emilio Lorenzo ( from1979 ). Papus was GM from 1888 untill 1916, Charles Henri Détré ( Téder ) was GM from 1916 untill 1918, Jean Bricaud was GM from 1918 untill 1934, Constant Chevillon was GM from 1934 untill 1944, Charles-Henry Dupont was GM from 1944 untill 1958.

Gérard Encausse ( Papus ), Charles Détré, Lucien Chamuel ( Mauchel ), Victor Blanchard ( Sar Yésir ) ( Targelius ), Augustin Chaboseau, Georges Bogé de Lagrèze, Harvey Spencer Lewis, Ralph M.Lewis, Orval Graves and Cecile A. Poole, Gary Lee Stewart, Christian Bernard. (the lineage of AMORC's T.M.O. and Gary Lee Stewart's B.M.O.

The successors of the T.M.O. were Victor Emile Michelet, Augustin Chaboseau ( Sar Augustus ), Ralp Maxwell Lewis ( Sar Validivar ), Gary Lee Stewart and Christian Bernard ( Sar Phenix ).

- The "Russian Line" ; they are dealt with in a separate part of this text …

Several members of the original Supreme Council of Papus' Martinist Order would leave the M*O* and soon would found their own version of the Martinist Order. These members were 'authorized' to found new Orders, because they had received the S.I. Initiateur , the 4th degree. Others belonged to the founding members, in the beginning of Papus' M*O* every member who had received the initiation of the 3th Degree (S.I.) was 'authorized' to initiate new members into Martinism …




L’Ordre des Chevaliers Maçons Elus Cohens de l’Univers’


Arthur Edward Waite Saint-Martin The French Mystic

A.E. Waite A new Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry, 1920's

R.A. L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ed. 2000

Edouard Blitz Ritual and Monitor of the Martinist Order, 1896 *

J.Godwin, C.Chanel, The Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor, Initiatic and Historical and J.P.Deveney Documents of an Order of Practical Occultism, 1997

J.Godwin The Beginnings of Theosophy in France, 1989

Gerald Galtier Maçonnerie Egyptienne, Rose-Croix et Neo-Chevalerie 1989

R.F.Gould History of Freemasonry, 1882/1887

John Yarker Arcane Schools , 1910

P.R. Koenig Ein Leben fuer die Rose (on Krumm-Heller)

Victor-Emile Michelet Les Compagnons de la Hiérophanie: souvenirs du movement hermétiste à la fin du XIX siècle

M.S.André,Chr.Beaufils Papus - la Belle Epoque d'Occultisme, 1995

Dr.Philippe Encausse Papus

Dr.Philippe Encausse Le Maitre Philippe, de Lyon: Thaumaturge et "Homme de Dieu"

L.C. de Saint-Martin des Nombres

Chr.McIntosh Eliphas Levi and the French Occult Revival

Robert Amadou Documents Martinistes, 1979

Robert Ambelain Le Martinisme - Histoire et doctrine

Documents, Articles

Dr.Carlos Raitzin René Guenon y las Ordenes Esotericas

Teio Meedendorp Sar Mérodack-Joséphin Péladan en het ideaal van de kunst

O*M* des Pays-Bas Rituelen en hun Symboliek ( brochure )


Fr.M Roggemans De Geschiedenis van de Occulte en Mystieke Broederschappen

"1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I."

O*M* des Pays-Bas Docteur Gérard Encausse

Apostolic Gnosis/E.G.A. the Balzac of the Occult and the Russian Sphynx

Golden Aeon The French Rosicrucian Movement

Canonbury Masonic Research Centre a Checklist of some 'Neo-Rosicrucian' Manifestations

Canonbury Masonic Research Centre A basic Historico-Chronological Model of the Western Hermetic Tradition, 1999 Trevor Stewart

Martinist Research-Site "Les Maîtres Passés"

History LCN, "Le Coeleuvre Noire"

Gérard Anaclet Encausse ( 1865 - 1916 ) aka Papus



Manifestations of the Martinist Orders

THE FOLLOWING is a listing of the different Martinist Orders which were founded after the death of Papus in 1916. "It makes no claim to be exhaustive nor to be perfect, the contents will contain mistakes". … The source of this listing can be found on Fr.Marcel Roggeman's excellent site "Geschiedenis van de occulte en mystieke broederschappen" , supplemented with material of my own.


1916 Ordre Martiniste-Martinéziste/ L’Ordre Martiniste de Lyon

1918 (1921) Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique

1931 Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel

1943 Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohens

Ordre Martiniste Rectifié

1952 Ordre Martiniste de Papus

1958 Fédération des Ordres Martinistes

1960 Ordre Martiniste ( L’Ordre Martinist de Paris )

1968 Ordre Martiniste Belge

1968 (1975) Martinisten Orde der Nederlanden / O*M* des Pays-Bas

1968 Ordre Martiniste Initiatique

1971 Ordre Martiniste des Chevaliers du Christ O*M*C*C*

1975-1980 Hermetic Order of Martinists (U.K.)

1977 De Martinisten Orde der Nederlanden in België / O*M* des Pay-Bas in Belgium

Ordre des Chevaliers Martinistes

1982 Rose+Croix Martinist Order ( Ontario, Canada )

1989 Ordre Martiniste Hermétique de Belgique

1990 Traditional Martinist Order of the U.S.A. Inc.

1991 British Martinist Order

Rose+Croix Martinist Order ( Colorado, U.S.A. )

Cadre Vert ( Belgium )

Martinist Order of the Temple +M*O*T+

1996 (?) Ordre Martiniste S:::I::: / O*M* de Luxembourg

2000 Ancient Martinist Order



Ordine Martinista Napolitano

Ordine Martinista

Ordine Martinista Antico

Ordine Martinista Universali

Ordine Martinista Kremmerziano



Orden Martinista


Martinism in South-America ( Brazil, Chile, Argentina )

O*M* & S, OM Brasileira, A M*O*, O*M*CC (Brazil)

Orden Martinista Inicíata de Chile

Orden Martinista / Orden de Templos Operativos


1916 Ordre Martiniste-Martinéziste/ L’Ordre Martiniste de Lyon Charles Détré ( Téder ) succeeded Papus as Grand Master of the 'original' Martinist Order. Téder wanted to restrict membership into the order strictly for Master-Masons (3th Degree of Blue Masonry), preferably masons which belonged to the "Antient & Primitive Rite of Memphis-Mizraim" (occult & hermetic Masonry). One of the consequences of Téder's decision would be that women were excluded from the order, a decision which was in violation with a fundamental precept of original Martinism (meaning, "Martinism" according to the teachings of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin). One has to understand that the O*M* at the time of Papus' death included a system of High Degrees, were the basic Martinist Degrees (up to S.I and S.I. Initiator) acted as a portal to the organization. The O*M* Téder, being an initiate of the Elus-Cohen himself, had in mind was much more focused upon the Theurgy of Martinez de Pasqually and High Degree Masonry. In 1917 Téder and Bricaud authorized members of the R.E.R. (Régime Écossais Rectifié" or "Rectified Scottish Rite") to attend Martinist Lodges ( Chapters of High Degrees). A Masonic Lodge was founded under the obedience of the Grande Loge Nationale Indépendante et Régulière of 1913, and properly installed in 1917 with the help of Martinists of the Rite National Espagnol ( Spanish Rite ). Apparently the lodge disappeared one year later…

When Téder died in 1918, he was succeeded by Jean Bricaud. Jean (Joanny) Bricaud met Papus in 1899 and received his S:::I::: in 1903. Bricaud moved the headquarters from Paris to Lyon, Bricaud's residence. The Ordre Martiniste was renamed in ORDRE MARTINISTE DE LYON.

Bricaud (1881-1934) took the order even closer to a Masonic basis. Female Martinists suddenly found themselves cut off from Martinist activity, as they once knew it…

In 1919 Bricaud revived the "Humanidad-Lodge" at Lyons in accordance with the 1908 -Reuss- Warrant (M.M. charter). Bricaud also activated the French Foundation of a "Supreme Grand Council of Confederated Rites" (M.M. etc.)

Many Martinists, including several members of the original Supreme Council from 1891, left the Order. According to some sources, Victor Blanchard (1878-1953) was to have become the successor of Charles Détre (Téder ) but he refused because of the Masonic requirement. It is known that Blanchard was the deputy of Téder. But as stated before, it's impossible to say who was the regular Grand Master, simply because there were no "well established rules regarding the nomination or succession" of a Grand Master within the O*M*. According to Robert Ambelain's book "Le Martinisme", published in 1946, Téder actually made fun of Bricaud. Furthermore, Ambelain (who re-founded the "Ordre Martiniste des Elus-Cohen" during the Second World War) stated that he had received information from witnesses at the time, claiming that Blanchard was the rightful Grand Master of the Martinists. Ambelain refers to an old Russian Martinist named Nicholas Choumitsky, a pupil of Charles Barlet at the time, from whom he had received the information. Choumitsky apparently had attended a meeting in (or about) 1919 at a café in Paris, between Bricaud and Blanchard. Bricaud showed a document which claimed that Téder had named him as his successor.

"Blanchard became violently angry, and after examination of the document, the unanimous opinion was that it was not authentic. Bricaud left the impression on those attending of being superficial and lacking any depth"

and "Afterwards Madame Detre (Teder's wife) told me that her husband could not have designated a successor since he wasn't at all intending to die!" ( "Le Martinisme", Ambelain 1946 ). According to Robert Ambelain in his book, Bricaud merely referred to himself as Grand Master General of the Order …

The history has already been told in "Addendum 6- Victor Blanchard" of the series "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I." and is derived from an article by Elias Ibrahim from the website of the "Ancient Martinist Order" at:

"VICTOR BLANCHARD: A Brief Summary of his life and work" , E.Ibrahim

As stated before, whatever the truth was, many Martinists left the O*M de Lyons , some of them joining Blanchard's order (which would become known as "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique" in 1934), others went on as "Free Martinists" (without belonging to any organization), others would later join Augustin Chaboseau, Lucien Chamuel, and Victor-Emile Michelet, who would found the "Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel in 1931 (many of the so-called "Free Martinists" would join this order)

The successors of Charles Détre and Bricaud ( G.M. from 1919-1934) were ;

Constant Chevillon ( 1934 - 1944 ) - shot by the Vichyregime ( Claus Barbi )

Charles-Henry Dupont (1944-1958) - Dupont disbanded the Order officially on December 14, 1958. The order of Lyons would merge into the "Ordre Martiniste ( L’Ordre Martinist de Paris ) , which was founded by Papus' son, Philippe Encausse, in 1960.

As we've seen before, Téder and Bricaud both took up the idea of reforming the O*M* . This "reformation" resulted in the O*M* de LYON. Bricaud's "Ordre Martiniste de Lyon" was an organization which divided the O*M* of Papus into two organizations, the "Ordre Martiniste-Martineziste de Lyon" with its Degrees of the ELUS COHEN, reserved to Masons of High Grades - and the "S.O.I." ( the "International Occultist Society" ). The S.O.I. corresponded with the O*M* of Papus, were Bricaud regrouped all the "profane", as it is stated.

"At the death of Jean Bricaud, C. Chevillon took up the torch and definitively cut the relation between the Rite of Memphis Misraim and the Elus Cohen from a part, and the S.O.I. from the other part, of which he named Mme Bricaud as president".

Source; "the True face of French Masonry" by Tau Renatus

That women were accepted by the Lyon organization, certainly at the time when Constant Chevillon (1880-1944) was Grand Master, is proved by the following statement taken from the "True Face of French Masonry":

"An important thing to note, in imitation of the great masons such as Cagliostro, Martinez de Pasqually, J.B. Willermoz; Constant Chevillon considered that women, an integral part of humanity, should have access to initiation. He then created a ritual for the first three degrees, perfectly adapted to femininity" and

"The first three degrees of the feminine rite naturally allow the possibility that women will accede to the highest grades …." (Memphis-Misraim)

The organization in Lyon under the leadership of Chevillon headed several Initiatic orders, i.a. ;






O.T.O. for France


The O*M" DE LYON was also involved in the foundation of the F.U.D.O.F.S.I., a federation of Initiatic Orders established in 1939. For information on this federation, see "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I.", Chapter(s) 6,7, and 8.


1918 (1921) Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique

The O*M*&S was 'officially' founded on January 3, 1921 by Victor Blanchard ( Sar Yésir,1878-1953), although the Order was not yet known at the time of it's foundation as the O*M*&S. The Order was "officially" proclaimed as the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique at the first convention of the F.U.D.O.S.I., held in Brussels, Belgium in August 1934 ( Blanchard was elected at the convention as "OM&S Universal Sovereign Grand Master"). The addition of Synarchique to the title of Blanchard's Martinist Order referred to the ideals of Synarchy, as developed by Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (see Addendum 7, "1934-1951-FUDOSI", Saint-Yves & Synarchy)

Blanchard (member of Papus' Supreme Counsil and venerable member of Lodge Melchisech no 208, a lodge which conferred the higher Degrees), who was the rightful successor of Téder according to many sources, left the original Martinist Order because he, like many other martinists, did not agree with the Masonic requirement. Therefore Blanchard gathered together several of the former Supreme Council Martinists "and the independent Martinists who did not adhere to or belong to the Masonic Martinist branch, forming a Martinist branch under the original constitution which had no Masonic qualifications and which Initiated men and women" ("A Martinist Treasury" by Trophimus, S.I.I.).

In a way, Blanchard's O*M*&S was a continuation of Papus' O*M*, with its focus on the mystical side of Martinism, a method otherwise known within Martinism as "the way of the Heart". The O*M*&S initiated their members into the 4 "traditional" degrees (incl. S.I. IV*) of Papus. Blanchard was the Sovereign Grand Master of the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique until his death in 1953 (March 14, 1953).

Unlike many other Initiatic and fraternal organizations the O*M*&S could continue its esoteric activities during the Second World War because the order directed its activities to Switzerland (a "neutral" country), were the order was represented by THE Senior Grand Master, Edouard Bertholet (Sar Alkmaion) and, before 1936, August Reichel *.

Blanchard was also one of the leading advocates of a federation of initiatic orders, which resulted, with Blanchard acting as one of the three imperators, in the foundation of the F.U.D.O.S.I. in Brussels, Belgium, in 1934. A couple of months before the first convention of the F.U.D.O.S.I. took place, Blanchard had installed a new Martinist lodge in Brussels. The installation of Lodge "URIEL" was the result of a meeting between Blanchard and Armand Rombauts (Rombauts had been chartered by Papus in 1912 to establish a Martinist Lodge, Lodge I.N.R.I.). In fact, the foundation of Lodge URIEL was a re-introduction of Martinism in Belgium. The whole story has been told in the series "1934-1951 FUDOSI" at

The story on Rombauts is told in Chapter 6 ; Chevillon versus FUDOSI"

Blanchard attended the 'Martinist-convention" (May, 1934) together with Lydie Martin and George Lagrèze. In August 1934, Blanchard would initiate Emile Dantinne, Harvey Spencer Lewis and other dignitaries of the F.U.D.O.S.I. into the O*M* & S. (see also "1931- O*M*T*). Blanchard was forced by the federation's Supreme Council to send in his resignation as Co-Imperator of the F.U.D.O.S.I., and he was also replaced in all of the other high offices he held within the federation (see Chapter 9 "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I." and, in this series, see also "1931 Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel").

In 1946 the O*M* & S returned within the ranks of the F.U.D.O.S.I. until 1951 when the federation was officially dissolved by the Supreme Council.

Around the years of the Second World War there existed another Martinist & Synarchy order which was a member of the F.U.D.O.S.I., the UNION SYNARCHIQUE DE POLOGNE, founded by Dr. Tarlo Mazinski in 1937. Not much is known to me about this 'side-branch', except that it was an independent organization. After the Second World War the F.U.D.O.S.I. wanted to merge the T.M.O. , O.M.&S, and the two minor Martinist organizations which were affiliated to the federation, the SOCIÉTÉ d'ETUDES MARTINISTES and the UNION SYNARCHIQUE DE POLOGNE, into one united Martinist Order. This idea failed, except for the two minor organizations. Therefore it is very likely that i.a. the "Union Synarchique de Pologne" (Synarchy Union of Poland) was included within the ranks of the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique (of course, this is just an assumption, not a 'historical fact' ! )

It was Bertholet who succeeded Blanchard as Souverain Grand-Maître of the O*M*&S in 1953. In 1958 Bertholet chartered Sar Sorath, who's also known as Sar Gulion, to establish a Grand Lodge for Great Britain and the overseas British territories, otherwise known as the Commonwealth. The Grand Inspector of the British Grand Lodge was Lawrence Ewels (..-1995), Sar Ra Bennu. The order in England was lead by an inner committee known as the Sovereign Tribunal . The British Grand Lodge represents the main Jurisdiction of the O*M*&S. Despite the status of this Grand Lodge, all foreign jurisdictions are autonomous. In that same year, 1958, Sar Sendivogious became the Provincial Délégate for Canada' (Sar Sendigovius was the former Archivist of the English Grand Lodge).

The Martinist Order and Synarchy has an official church, the " Église Gnostique Universelle", also known as the "Église Gnostique Apostolique". Blanchard (Tau Targelius ) had been ordained by Jean Bricaud on May 15, 1918.

Information on Bertholet and Reichel (and other characters) can be found in various Chapters of the series "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I."

In 1960 the Continental Jurisdictions reunited with the "Ordre Martiniste" of Papus' son, Gerard Encausse (in which we find also many former members of the T.M.O. who left after Ralph M. Lewis became Grand Master). The O*M*&S. still exists today, under its original name, in countries like Canada, U.S.A., Barbados, and England (England being the main jurisdiction under the leadership of Louis Bentin, Sar Gulion, other sources state that the present-day order is lead by Rui Gabirro ). There is a Grand Lodge of Quebec and Nigeria, The Province of The West Indies (Barbados), and a district of France. Several members of The Ordre Martiniste Et Synarchique in Barbados, West Indies, formed in 1985 The International College of Esoteric Studies, known today as ICES. This organization is not an Initiatic Order but a college ( as in school ) which provides material translated in English derived from the original French material from several European- continental Rosicrucian, Martinist, and M.M. -organizations .


Lines of succession of the different Jurisdictions ;


Papus and Augustin Chaboseau, Charles Détré, Georges Bogé de Lagrèze ( Mikael), August Reichel ( Amertis ), V. Churchill ( Sar Vernita ), Sar Gulion - or Sar Sorath

(Louis Bentin ). Today the order is lead by Grand Master Sar Gulion, Louis Bentin (or Rui Gabirro ).

the Grand Masters were (up to 1960) Charles Détré, Victor Blanchard, Dr. Edouard Bertholet ( Sar Alkmaion ), Louis Bentin (Sar Gulion).



Canada had two parallel lines of succession ;

Papus and Augustin Chaboseau, Charles Détré, Georges Bogé de Lagrèze

( Mikael), August Reichel ( Amertis ), V. Churchill ( Sar Vernita ), Sar Sendivogius

Papus and Augustin Chaboseau, Charles Détré, Georges Bogé de Lagrèze ( Mikael ), August Reichel ( Armetis ), V. Churchill ( Sar Vernita ), Sar Gulion/Sorath ( Grand Master of GB ), William Pendleton and Sar Parsifal / Sar Petrus ( Peter Maydan, who died in 1994 ). Peter Maydan was succeeded by Gordon Stuart .

The Canadian branch proclaimed its independence in 1960 with Sar Ressurectus as its Grand Master and Sar Petrus as his Deputy G.M. (the continental Jurisdictions reunited with the "Ordre Martiniste" of Philippe Encausse in 1960).

Sar Sendivogius specialized in the teachings of the Elus Cohen.The Elus Cohen became the "inner order" of the O*M*&S…

In 1965 the Canadian Grand Lodge was lead by ;

Sar Resurrectus ( Gordon Stuart ) - Chairman ( initiated by Pendleton ), Sar Sendivogius - Deputy Chairman/Inspector, Sar Petrus - Secretary/Archivist.

The Canadian branch was considered clandestine by the O*M*&S in England, "eventhough they are properly in possession of Initiatic authority" (fr.Melchior"Survey on modern Martinist Orders"). The Canadian branch made an alliance in 1973 with Roger Caro's ENA / EGLISE UNIVERSELLE DE LA NOUVELLE ALLIANCE of France, which was the 'outer' order for the FAR+C / FRERES AINES DE LA ROSE+CROIX, an Alchemical Order.

The Canadian branch of the O*M*&S, through its initiations into the S.I.I or S.I.IV Degree, the grade of Initiatèur Libre, enabled Mike Revisto (Sar Ignatius) to found the Rose†Croix Martinist Order (R*C*M*O*) in 1982.

Website ( incl.scans of Martinist documents of Initiation) :

The O*M*&S (post 1960) maintained a close relationship with the other Martinist orders (with the exception of the T.M.O. under the jurisdiction of AMORC), especially with the O*M* in France.

For example, the O*M*&S from England (the Lodge of London, "E*O*L*) organizes a "tenue Initiatique" in Paris on October 23, 1971, were Maria Lorenzo is designated as an intermediary between the O*M* of Paris and the O*M*&S to maintain a close relationship between the two organizations.

A conflict arose whithin the Canadian branch, when the order found out that one of their Grand Masters was a member of the Traditional Martinist Order (AMORC). After Maydan was dismissed by the T*M*O* in 1973 he returned as GM of the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique from Canada.

The M*O*&S was chartered in 1990 in the United States under the sponsorship of the M*O*&S Grand Lodge of Britain. "The head of this Martinist body is Sar Eliakim of

New York City. [1991]" ("a Martinist Treasury" by Trophimus, S.I.I.) The O*M*&S returned to France in 1975 and was lead in 1995 by Grand Master Sar Gabriel.


The ' Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique' in the West-Indies

In September 1982 "a Brother, journeying from Barbados, West Indies" (source: I.C.E.S.) was initiated by Louis Bentin / Sar Gulion and he also received a charter to install " on the Ilse of Barbados in the West Indies, Lodges and

Heptads of the Martinist Order that have been regularly authorized and

warranted by the Sovereign Tribunal of the Britannic Grand Lodge." On November 12, 1982, Lodge Empress was inaugurated on the island.


"Returning to London in September 1985, Sar Inspirator Lucis was again

received by Sar Gulion who conferred upon him the Ordinations of the

Elus-Cohen which he had himself received ( on October 6, 1960 Louis Bentin was ordained by Robert Ambelain into the Ordre Martiniste des

Elus-Cohen *). To mark this occasion Sar Inspirator Lucis changed his Nomen Mysticum to Sar Savitar, on September 25, 1985. At this time discussions were held about the erection of the present Provincial Lodge of Barbados to the status of Sovereing Grand Lodge. This date has been fixed for Easter, 1986. [This has since come to pass.] (Source ; lecture from Liber two, Plane one of the ICES )

*Sar Gulion received from Ambelain the following Elus Cohen degrees ;

Grand-Master Cohen, Ap:: Reau +

Chevalier d'Orient, C:: Reau +

Commandeur d'Orient, M:: Reau +

The O*M*&S in the West-Indies also carries a lineage of Willermoz' C.B.C.S.


1931 Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel

The Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel was founded on July 24, 1931. The order consisted of members who had revolted against Téder and Joanny (Jean) Bricaud and their blend of Masonic Martinism, and who did not recognize Victor Blanchard as a Grand Master of the Martinist order. It was Augustin Chaboseau's (June 17, 1868- January 21, 1946) candidate for the Universal Sovereign Grand Master, Victor-Emile Michelet (1861-1938), who could not accept the election of Blanchard (1). Therefore Michelet founded the O*M*T* in 1931, with Michelet as Grand Master and Chaboseau as Deputy Grand Master. There are sources which claim that it was Chaboseau who was elected as Grand Master, but Chaboseau designated Michelet who was older than Chaboseau. Together with Lucien Chamuel (…- 1936) they proclaimed that the O*M*T* was the one and only true heir of the original Ordre des S.I. / Ordre Martiniste of 1891.

1) The text here is derived from several sources which speak about an important "Martinist Convention" which, supposedly, was held at the time (1930's). For instance, Trophimus in his book "a Martinist Treasury" refers to the first convention of the F.U.D.O.S.I., held in August 1934 in Brussels (??) being this Martinist Convention; "In 1934, a convention of Martinists was called by Victor Blanchard who had been the head of a Martinist Order he founded after the original Martinist Order restricted its membership to Masons",… and "However, Pierre Augustine Chaboseau had offered his own candidate for Universal Sovereign Grand Master, V.E. Michelet. When Michelet was not elected, Chaboseau withdrew and founded the Traditional Martinist Order, with Michelet as Grand Master and with Chaboseau as deputy Grand Master". The "problem" is THE DATE . The reliability of the sources regarding this "Martinist Convention" is questionable. If Chaboseau and Michelet decided to found their own Martinist Order after they attended the F.U.D.O.S.I. convention in 1934, the official "date of birth" of the Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel, 1931, would be incorrect !

Both Michelet and Chaboseau, as well as Chamuel, belonged to the 'original Martinists of 1891' and had been members of the first Supreme Council under Papus (Michelet wrote of this period which is known as the grande époque de l'occultisme français - in his book Les Compagnons de la Hiérophanie, published by Dorbon-Ainé, Nice- 1977).

It is generally known that Chaboseau was in reality the Occult Director of the original Martinist Order. Michelet was also the founder of the "ASSOCIATION DES AMIS DE PÉLADAN", a "circle of friends" which studied the works of Joséphin Peladan, in 1920. Chamuel (Lucien Mauchel ) was also the Grand Master of the OKR+C, as successor to Charles Détre / Téder (there existed a parallel line of succession with Bricaud acting as G.M., the OKR+C -OKR+C GNOSTIQUE- affiliated to the Ordre Martiniste de Lyon. Victor Blanchar represented up to 1939 the OKR+C within the F.U.D.O.S.I. ). The masonic requirement was not the only objection Chaboseau had. Chaboseau also objected to the religious orientation of Téder and Bricaud and the L'Eglisé Gnostique Universelle (Gnostic Church). During his life, Chaboseau would never stop fighting for religious freedom. "Directly or indirectly, he initiated Martinists who would continue the fight for religious freedom; Jules Boucher (1948, Ordre Martiniste Rectifié), Gustave Lambert-Brahy (1968, O*M* Belge), Maurice Warnon (1975, O*M* de Pays-Bas)".

In fact, it was the intention of Chaboseau, Michelet and Chamuel to found a M*O* "in parallel with the "L'Ordre Martiniste-Martinéziste" of Lyons to succeed to Papus".
On Januari 12, 1938 (or 1939) Michelet dies. Chaboseau succeeded Michelet as Grand Master of the O*M*T*. The Supreme Council of the OTM/TMO ( Conseil Suprême Traditionnel ) in 1939 consisted of, besides Pierre-Augustin Chaboseau, Jean Chaboseau ( Galaad, son of Augustin Chaboseau ), Octave Beliard and Georges de Lagrèze. Both Beliard and Lagrèze (
2) were initiated in a direct line to Papus (Lagrèze was initiated by Tedér on June 30, 1906 and had been a member of the Supreme Council under Papus since October 8, 1908) . In 1939 the OTM had developed into a fertile organization.

George Lagrèze was one of the prominent and leading characters of the 'occult community' at the time. He was the general Director of the Strasbourg Theatre. A Martinist S.I., initiated by Téder on June 30, 1906, a member of the SUPRÊME CONSEIL DE L'ORDRE MARTINISTE and Inspecteur principal of the M*O* from 1908 onwards (August 10, 1908). Lagrèze was a member of the OKR+C, Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix (Charter signed by Téder), Chevalier du Temple et Préfet of the STRICTE OBSERVANCE and SWEDISH RITE. He was a Mason (33th degree) of the 'Grand-Orient de France', as a 33* of the Antient Scottish Rite Lagrèze was also a 'Honorary member of the Grand-Lodge of Denmark . In 1909 (Sept.9) he also received a Charter from John Yarker , Great Hierophant of the Antient & Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim, from whom Lagrèze received the 33* / 95* Degree of the M.'.M.'. Rite, which was "confirmed" by Joanny Bricaud. A member of the C.B.C.S. (founded in 1778 by Willermoz) . His 'mystical nomen' was EQUES A ROSAE CARITATIS. He was Grand Master of the Perfect Square in France of Dantinne's O::H::T:: & M:: . In 1937 Lagrèze was appointed "Grand Profès" of the C.B.C.S. , 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte', by several dignitaries of the Grand Prieure d'Helvetia (Grand Lodge of Switzerland), such as the 'Grand Chancelier" Amez-Droz and a certain 'brother' named Lesieus. Lagrèze was also the Grand Master of the ELUS-COHEN (re-established by Ambelain in 1943) and of the ROSE+CROIX d'ORIENT (1879-1946)


Source ; G.Galtier "Maçonnerie Egyptienne, Rose-Croix et Neo-Chevalerie" 1994

Gerard Galtier on Lagreze and Martinism : " After the First World War Lagréze seems to have accepted the direction of Jean Bricaud at the head of the french occult Societies originating from Papus, seeing that he therefore possessed the title of Principal Inspector and Member of the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order of Lyons. Around 1933 he separated himself from Bricaud in order to ally himself with the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique of Victor Blanchard where he became deputy Grand Master. In the same period he united with Rombauts and the other dissident Belgians who had also freed themselves from the supervision of Bricaud " . This text was kindly translated by Elias Ibrahim who further states ; "Bro. Lagréze was one of the great lights of Martinism and helped the tradition to survive into our times by eventually conveying his knowledge and wisdom to Bro Ambelain and Jeanne Guesdon and I believe also to some extent to Ralph Lewis" . I can personally add to his information that Lagréze indeed, together with Chaboseau, were in close contact at the time with first Harvey Spencer Lewis, and later Ralph Maxwell Lewis…

On July 14, 1938 Victor Blanchard of the O*M* & S had auto-consecrated himself as the Universal Grand Master of the Rose-Croix and of all the Initiatic Orders of the world. He sent a proclamation to each Grand Master of the F.U.D.O.S.I., which requested allegiance and recognition of his new dignity. In the series "1934-1951 FUDOSI" the story is written that Blanchard was totally convinced that he was the Universal Grand Master of the Rose-Croix (see Chapter 9 of the series). Blanchard was i.a. also President of the FRATERNITE DES POLAIRES / POLAIRE BROTHERHOOD which "used" a divinatory-method called (transl.) "the Oracle of the Astral Force". Somehow this "oracle" gave Blanchard the idea that he was the new Universal Grand Master of the rosicrucians (the whole story is told in Chapter 9 of the FUDOSI-series at

( )

One of the consequences of Blanchard's conviction was that he was expelled from the F.U.D.O.S.I. in 1939. The Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique was replaced at the 4th convention of the federation by the Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel. Many members, including such high dignitaries as George Lagrèze and Jeanne Guesdon (Grand Secrétaire of AMORC-France), left the O*M* & S and went over to Chaboseau's Martinist Order. Two other high dignitaries of the federation, Imperators Emille Dantinne and Ralph Maxwell Lewis of AMORC, also left Blanchard's O*M* & S. In September 1939 Ralph Maxwell Lewis was initiated (subject to the approval of Chaboseau) by Lagrèze into the O*M*T* (S.I.and S.I.IV, the "Initiator-degree")) Harvey Spencer Lewis, Ralph's father, had received a charter from Blanchard for the O*M* & S in the United States. The first Martinist temple which was established in California by Lewis was called "Louis Claude de Saint-Martin". Ralph had been intiated into the O*M* & S by Blanchard in 1936 (S.I.IV). In October 1939 Ralph Maxwell Lewis was appointed "Sovereign delegate and Regional Grand Master" of the O*T*M* by Lagrèze, for California and the United States. This Charter ( like many other documents which relate to rosicrucian and Martinist orders of the 20th century) can be found at Marcel Roggeman's excellent site at ( "DOCUMENTEN" ).

This way the Conseil Suprême Régional des Etats-Unis' was founded. The council consisted of 5 members :

Ralph Maxwell Lewis, Cecil A. Poole, Orlando T. Perrotta, James R. Whitcomb and J. Duane Freeman. The Charter was requested by Ralph Maxwell Lewis and the request was addressed to Lagrèze, together with an application for the "regularization of Martinist Initiation" intended for the brothers Whitcomb, K.Brower, and the sisters Whitcomb, G.Lewis and M. Lewis. They all received the S.I. degree, except for Ralph M.Lewis, who also received the Degree of Initiator, S:::I:::IV.

Augustin Chaboseau died on January 2, 1946 and was succeeded by Lagrèze. "Lagrèze died shortly after Chaboseau in April of the same year, and Jean Chaboseau succeeded Lagrèze as Grand Master of the TMO. Under normal circumstances he would have been chosen as his father's successor as co-Imperator of the FUDOSI by the Supreme Council. But the 'Supreme Council' decided otherwise" as is stated in Chapter 11 of the F.U.D.O.S.I.-series, "The 5th Convention -1946 …"

The complete story of what actually happened at the '1946 Convention' has already been told in Chapters 11 and 12 of the first series "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I." . So I'll only present a short summary of the events here and I refer to the first series (Chapters 11+12) to read the complete story.

When Augustin Chaboseau died in 1946 (and shortly after him Lagrèze) it was Jean Chaboseau, his son, who normally would have succeed his father as Grand Master of the O*M*T*. The Supreme Council did not approve of the nomination and installed a temporary Council of Regency to lead the Martinist Order. As stated in the first series, the members of the F.U.D.O.S.I. originally wanted to establish a Supreme Martinist Council which would be heading the two main orders ( OM&S, Blanchard had returned within the ranks of the federation, and TMO ) and the other participating Martinist Orders ( "SOCIÉTÉ d'ÉTUDES MARTINISTES" and " UNION SYNARCHIQUE DE POLOGNE").

The following details are taken from Chapter 11 of the 1st series :

The minutes of the Conclave on July, 22 , which were published by A.M.O.R.C., on this issue :

"The Convention, after hearing the reports of the Delegates, the Messages of the absent Delegates and their reports, after taking opinions and after regular discussions, decided :

1) to keep in vacancy the seat of the third Imperator of the F.U.D.O.S.I. , which was held by the V.'. ILL.'. SAR AUGUSTINUS, Grand Master of the Traditional Martinist Order, until the election of a new Grand Master of this Order. In the meantime all the regular powers of the Grand Mastership will be carried on by a COUNCIL OF REGENCY, composed of :

SAR PURITIA ( France) -Jeanne Guesdon ( A.M.O.R.C.), Secretary

SAR LEUKOS ( America) - President

SAR RENATUS ( Belgium) -Rene Rossart ('Head' of the Belgian Martinists), Treasurer

They alone will be qualified to validate or deliver charts or documents for the Order during the vacancy of this post of Grand Master.

Thus is decreed without appeal and confirmed by us, Imperators and Members of the Supreme Council of the F.U.D.O.S.I., in our sittings of this 22nd day of July, 1946. The above constitutes our official declaration" .

To cut a long story short, the COUNCIL OF REGENCY headed the Ordre Martiniste traditionnel from 1946 onwards.

"Jean Chaboseau sended in his resignation on the 6th Convention. Augustin Chaboseau's son tried to disband the "Suprême Conseil de l'Ordre Martiniste", but his "motion" (as a ' vote of no confidence' ) did not get the approval from the F.U.D.O.S.I. Because of the disapproval Jean Chaboseau left the "Traditional Martinist Order", of which he was, during his father's reign, a member of the Supreme Counsil (together with Lagreze and Beliard)" Chapter 12, 1st Series

The plans which the federation had for the unification of the Martinist organizations were not submitted for approval to the relevant Grand Masters. On the 1947 Convention the O*M*T* did not have a Grand Master and the G::M:: of the O.M.&S, Victor Blanchard, was (evidently) not present at the '47 Convention.

At this convention, held in Paris, Ralph Maxwell Lewis was appointed Sovereign Grand Master of the Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel. As mentioned above, he was elected in absence i.a. Victor Blanchard, head of the O*M* & S*, the seat of Grand Master of the O*M*T* was vacant, because the federation had voted against Jean Chaboseau.

As stated in Chapter 12 of the 1st F.U.D.O.S.I.-series ;

"These two facts explain the attitude of Jean Chaboseau and his attempt to disband the Supreme Counsil. During the convention Ralph Maxwell Lewis took the opportunity to appoint himself as Sovereign Grand Master of the "Ordre Martiniste Tradionnel" (TMO).

The T.M.O. of Lewis can be looked upon (at the least) as doubtful. First of all,

1 The doubtful decision of his appointment as Grand Master , in which Lewis, as co-Imperator, played an ambiguous role, both judge as well as plaintiff .

2 The supposed authorization of the F.U.D.O.S.I., in absence of the Grand Masters, to place the Martinist Orders under its authority ".

The events of 1946 and 1947 caused a schism within the ranks of the O*M*T*, officials included (among which at least one Coucil-member) and many European members left the order.

Rene Rossart (Sar Renatus), treasurer of the "Council of Regency" (see Chapter 11) of the O*M*T* and Council member of the F.U.D.O.S.I., left the Order. Others joined Blanchard's O*M* & S* or simply remained independent as "Free-Martinists".

The schism resulted i.a. in the foundation of the "Ordre Martiniste Rectifié"in 1948 by Jules Boucher, a former high official of the O*M*T*.

Regarding the further activities of Rene Rossart, head of the Belgian Martinists at the time, and Jean Chaboseau, we are left in the dark. Although I've stumbled upon certain information in the past which cited that Rossart, after he left O*M*T*'s Council of Regency, founded his own Martinist Order, "Ordre Martinist Universel" ( source "unknown" ). According to this source, Rossart passed away in October 1948. It was stated that Dr. Edouard Bertholet ( Ordre Ancien et Mystique de la Rose+Croix - Switzerland) "inherited" Rossart's Universal Martinist Order. The Ordre Martiniste Universel never really developed into a succesful organization, and if the Ordre Martiniste Universel ever really existed it either was disbanded or the organization "merged" into another organization. But … this is just an assumption and not a 'historical fact' which is based on documents etc.(information derived from "private notes" without any reference to any source. I also came across the "Ordre Martiniste Universel" in connexion with the "Ordre Martiniste de Paris". Apparently, according to this source, the "Ordre Martiniste Universel" was one of the Orders which were founded in the late-seventies by members who'd left dr.Philippe Encausse's "Ordre Martiniste", this story seems much more reliable ).

Other high dignitaries like Octave Béliard left the order and was probably later involved in the foundation of the Ordre Martiniste de Papus in 1953. The O*M* de Papus was headed by Papus' son Philippe Encausse, of whom several sources claim that he also had been a one-time member of Chaboseau's O*M*T*. Other Martinists who left the O*T*M* at the time were men like Robert Chapelain, Pierre Levy, Ilhamar Strouvea and Gustave Tautin.

Seal of the O:::T:::M:::

Returning to the subject of Ralph Maxwell Lewis' election as Grand Master of the Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel, it is clear that the approval came from the remains of the Supreme Council and the remains of the Council of Regency (consisting of Sar Leukios and Sar Puritia -Jeanne Guesdon, successively president and secretary of the Council of Regency and both high dignitaries of A.M.O.R.C.).

When the F.U.D.O.S.I. was dissolved in 1951 the O*M*T*ceased to exist. The original American branch continued as the TRADITIONAL MARTINIST ORDER under the wings of A.M.O.R.C. (Antiquus Mysticusque Ordo Rosae Crucis) and was headed by the Sovereign Grand Master, Ralph Maxwell Lewis, who had separated the American delegation from the original order. Ralph M.Lewis claimed to be Augustin Chaboseau's rightful successor.

The order ceased to exist as an independent order and was closely connected to A.M.O.R.C. In some jurisdictions of A.M.O.R.C. the T*M*O* (Traditional Martinist Order ) only admits high-degree (9th ) A.M.O.R.C. members.

AMORC's TMO in France - de L'Heptade "Abbé de la Noue"

The Heptad " Abbé de la Noue, no.22" was established in Paris around 1960.

The Heptad was lead by Julien Origas (Hugues de Payns, 1920-1983) who became a member of A.M.O.R.C. in 1951. In the following years he was involved with the Rosicrucian Lodge of A.M.O.R.C. at rue de la Condamine in Paris. Origas would later found the "Renewed Order of the Temple", ORT, of which he was its Grand Master until his death in 1983. In 1983 he was succeeded by Luc Jouret. Jouret was forced to leave the ORT within a year, taking half of the members with him. Together with Jo Di Mambro he then founded the "notorious" Order of the Solar Temple

Around 1968-1969 the Martinist Heptad comprised a small number of members which were lead by seven officers. In 1966 another Heptad was established in the Paris area by Jean Dubuis (Sar Jean, see "1896 Societe Alchimique de France"). In the 1950's Dubuis had been a member of the "Lectorium Rosicrucianum". Unlike the Heptad of Origas, Dubuis' Heptad was very succesful, as was stated by Raymond Bernard (Sar Rosenkreutz) who was a Grand Master of A.M.O.R.C. at the time. In 1969 the two Heptads merged under the name of "Abbé de la Noue". The Heptad was a success with 120 members in its ranks (divided into 4 classes of 30 people). The Heptad also established a special class within its structure, known as the " 2ème Cercle " (the 2nd Circle), which studied and practised the Occult Arts. There existed two of these Occult Circles within the Heptad, increasing the total number up to 200 members.

Under the charismatic leadership of Jean Dubuis the Heptad specialized in classes on Kabbalah, Tarot , Ceremonial Magic etc. Apparently the Kabbalah -classes were based on the 20th century classic "The Mystical Kabbalah", written by Dion Fortune.

The classes were supplemented with studies on the Zohar. Jean Dubuis' Martinist Heptad developed slowly towards a form of Martinism which approached the original order of Papus. Opposition arose within the ranks of A.M.O.R.C. Finally in 1974 Raymond Bernard replaced Dubuis by Pierre Crimetz ( see '1980 L’Ordre des Chevaliers Martinistes). Jean Dubuis left and founded in 1979 the "Association des Philosophes de la Nature", the Philosophers of Nature ( L.P.N. / P.O.N. , see also "1896 Societe Alchimique de France" ).

The Traditional Martinist Order (after 1951) is structured on "Septa" and "Heptads" (made up of 7 officers). the Order is "lead" in each jurisdiction by its "Grand Heptad" (connected to a Grand Lodge of A.M.O.R.C.)

The initiations are conferred within the Heptads. Regarding the teachings, Trophimus in his book "a Martinist Treasurey", explains ;

"The instruction papers are those of the Martinist Order and Synarchy which the TMO officers obtained when they were Initiated into the Martinist Order and Synarchy by Victor Blanchard in the 1930s. These MOS papers have been edited to reflect the non-magical philosophy of AMORC". The last sentence refers to the "Non Theurgical Methods" which are employed by the T*M*O*.

Regarding the TMO teachings and the O*M* & S, i'm not sure whether Trophimus' claim reflects the "truth" since Ralph M.Lewis also had the original material from Chaboseau's Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel at his disposal. According to several former T*M*O* members the TMO lessons are indeed edited and much of the original information has been taken out. These members (from whom I received the information) became aware of this fact after they became a member of I.C.E.S., which publishes English translations of original French material derived from such orders as the O*M*T*, O*M* & S, MEMPHIS-MIZRAIM, ELUS COHEN, OKR+C etc.

AMORC's T*M*O* provides a 'home-correspondence course' and is many times accused by other Martinists of ' illegal practises' such as postal initiations. Being a former AMORC-member myself, I know for sure (at least in the Dutch Jurisdiction) that every 'Home-Sanctum' member is obliged to undergo a "physical initiation" in a Lodge, at least with regard to the "First Temple Degree" (1st Degree). If I'm not mistaken one is also obliged to take the last (the Ninth Temple Degree ) physically (although I've heard of strange stories happening in the past of members taking the 9th before the 1st ). The above mentioned obligations regarding initiation applies of course to the "Rosicrucian students" of A.M.O.R.C. I'm not familiar with the "regulations" within the T*M*O*, but I presume that they are "compatible" with the A.M.O.R.C. regulations. After all, the Martinist method of 'personal initiation' (the initiator employs the biblical "laying on of hands" upon the initiate) is "the key" of a Martinist Initiation ritual …

According to Fr.Melchior in his summary on Martinist Orders nearly all of the accusations have been proved wrong: "TMO does operate Septa & Heptads (temples), they DO initiate members physically (and not per mail), they DO possess the so-called Fourth degree of Unknown Philosophers, but the Degree of free Initiator is not given to many members (Ralph M.Lewis has withheld this degree from almost all its initiating officers)".

The Traditional Martinist Order does not recognize the authority of any of the other Martinist Orders, it's the only Martinist Order refusing to admit Martinists from other Martinist Orders as visitors. T*M*O 's policy towards other Martinist organizations is rather "aggressive". For instance, when A.M.O.R.C. in the U.S.A. became aware of the existence of I.C.E.S. at Barbados "a very angry exchange of letters
took place, with AMORC demanding that Barbados *cease & desist*
" (information ; former member of T*M*O ). Although there are some indications that Christian Bernard attempted to have "his" TM*O* recognized by other Martinist bodies in Europe.

T.M.O. / France publishes a periodical review called "Pantacle".

During the last decade the T*M*O* expanded especially in Brazil.

When Ralph Maxwell Lewis died in 1987 he was succeeded by Gary L. Stewart (1953-…) as Imperator of A.M.O.R.C. and Grand Master of the T.M.O.

In 1990 Stewart was removed from the Imperatorship by the Board of Directors (Supreme Counsil) of A.M.O.R.C. (more information on this topic can be found at: AMORC vs Imp.G.S.Stewart)

However, these Board members failed to remember to remove Stewart from the office of Sovereign Grand Master of the TM*O*. Stewart re-established the T*M*O* in America as the T*M*O*A*, The Traditional Martinist Order of America.

Gary L..Stewart received the "all-important 4th Degree of Initiator" from Cecil Poole, who received this degree himself directly from Victor Blanchard of the O*M* &S. Apparently, the documentation of Stewart's initiation to the 4th Degree was taken to Paris, along with other T*M*O* material by Christian Bernard, president of A.M.O.R.C. Gary L..Stewart also founded the B*M*O*, British Martinist Order, in 1991 based upon an 'old' Russian Martinist Lineage (Golitzin)

The "Lines of Succession" of the O*M*T* / T*M*O* ;

Victor Emile Michelet, Augustin Chaboseau ( Sar Augustus ), Ralp Maxwell Lewis

( Sar Validivar ), Gary Lee Stewart and Christian Bernard ( Sar Phenix ).

The present-day T*M*O* has three parallel lines of succession ;

Papus and Augustin Chaboseau, Charles Détré, Victor Blanchard en Harvey Spencer Lewis

Papus and Augustin Chaboseau, Charles Détré ( Téder ), Victor Blanchard en Ralp Maxwell Lewis

Papus and Augustin Chaboseau, Charles Détré, Georges de Lagrèze ( Mikael ) and Ralph Maxwell Lewis.


The situation within the T*M*O* during the "A.M.O.R.C. vs. Imperator Gary S.Stewart Controversy" (1991) has two ' Lines of succession' ;

Ralph Maxwell Lewis, Orval Graves and Christian Bernard.

Ralph Maxwell Lewis, Cecile A. Poole, Gary Lee Stewart

Regarding the first ' Line of Succession' , Ralph initiated Christian's father, Raymond Bernard into Martinism and gave him the S.I. Degree, but not the 4th Intiator Degree !

In July 1951 Raymond Bernard, who was duly initiated by J Duane Freeman into A.M.O.R.C.( who received his initiation by H.S. Lewis), installed the OMT (Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel) within AMORC France. In 1987 Raymond retired, so the Martinist Line of succession ended here. Later on (1990), Orval Graves *was "dug out of retirement" to perform the 4th Degree Initiator on Christian Bernard. This way Christian 'secured" a legitimate lineage, "assuming that his TMO-one had been compromised along the way", as Mark Stavish has put it (private email). Orval Graves received his Martinist Initiations back in the days of the F.U.D.O.S.I. meetings. Apparently, mr.Graves was initiated into the Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique

Orval Graves was AMORC's Librarian during the 1930's and 1940's. Graves started the famous AMORC-classes on ' Practical Alchemy' (see "1896 SOCIETE ALCHIMIQUE DE FRANCE " )

The second ' Line of Succession' involves Gary Lee Stewart (Imperator of the "Confraternitas Rosae Crucis" CR+C and GM of the B*M*O*), who was initiated by Cecil A. Poole. Poole held the all-important 4th Degree of Initiator from Victor Blanchard of the MOS. Stewart claims to hold the all-important 4th Degree, which is probably correct since he is an installed Sovereign Grand Master. Stewart also claims to hold an ancient Russian lineage, which he received in Belgium in the 1970's ( the I.S. Milites Templi, a 'Templarist' order which has i.a. two Lodges in Belgium).

The T*M*O* is still active today, under the authority of G.M. Christian Bernard. The order even expanded during the last decade, specifically in Southern-American countries like Brazil. For instance, the HEPTADA MARTINISTA SÃO PAULO, established in 1994, initiated 740 members up to december, last year (dec.2000).

In Brazil the T*M*O* was launched officially during the XI Convenção Nacional Rosacruz (11th Rosicrucian national Convention), in October of 1986, by the Grand Master of the T*M*O* at the time, Ralph Maxwell Lewis F.R.C., S.I. , L.I.

The Grand Master of the Portuguese Jurisdiction at the time is Charles Vega Parucker F.R.C., S . I . L . I .


The "1990-Reorganization" within AMORC resulted in a schism (see Chapter "1915 A.M.O.R.C."). Many members left A.M.O.R.C. around that time, one of these being Dr.Onslow Wilson, a highly respected member of the Order, to some the "innovator of science and mysticism at AMORC" . Wilson already left AMORC at the time when Donna O'Neill was appointed GM of the English- speaking jurisdiction by Gary L.Stewart, so before the upheaval of 1990.

Wilson had been i.a. the "Director of the Department of Instruction" of A.M.O.R.C. Wilson was involved with such organizations as CIRCES ("Centre International de Recherches Culturelles et Spirituelles", Templar Research Institute, founded by Raymond Bernard 1988), OSTI (Ordre Souverain du Temple Initiatique, founded by J.L.Marsan in 1966, later headed by R.Bernard), OPI, and OUM.

Wilson apparently established a new Martinist organization named "GROUPE d'ETUDES ET DE RECHERCHES MARTINISTE ET ESOTERIQUE" ( "GERME" ),

"Group for the Study and Research of Martinism and Esotericism". Onslow Wilson received his initiation directly from Jacqueline Encausse, widow of Dr.Philippe Encausse, Papus' son. GERME is active in the United States. Onslow Wilson resides in Indiana, USA.


1943 Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohens

Ordre des Chevaliers Macons Elus-Cohen de l'Univers

The O*M*EC was originally founded by Don Martinez de Pasqually in 1768. The E*C* was originally a Masonic rite, which later developed within the 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte' of De Pasqually's disciple, Jean- Baptiste Willermoz. The C.B.C.S. of Willermoz was a fusion of several Freemasonic rites (Stricte Observance). Strictly spoken, the rite of Elus Cohen was left without a rightful heir after 1807. The original rite and its temples became almost dormant after De Pasqually's death, "Sebastian de las Casas, the last Grand Master of the Elus Cohen, delivered the archives of the order to the 'Philalèthes' "

The original "Line of Succession" of the ELUS COHEN ended in 1807(1) ;

J. de Livron de la Tour de la Case Martinez de Pasqually ( 1767 - 1774 ), Caignet de Lestère ( 1774 - 1779 ), Sebastian de las Casas 1780, G.Z.W.J. 1807


1) Next to the European "lines of succession" there exists a so-called "Haitin Line", represented by Lucien François Jean-Maine (1869-1960) who, apparently, was consecrated as a Gnostic Bishop in France at the beginning of the 20th century. It is stated that he also 'exchanged' several of his filiations with Papus. His E*C* filiation allegedly went back to De Pasqually, it is said that several members of the Maine family were affiliated to Pasqually's E*C*. The E*C* on Haiti was known as the " Temples Cohens de Port-au-Prince et de Lèogane", and functioned up until 1780. According to the story, when De Pasqually arrived at Haiti, there already existed Templar- and Masonic lodges on the island. After De Pasqually's death, several E*C* members, together with other masons, templars, and members of "secret Afriican societies", created a syncretism called "Les Templiers Noirs", the Black Templars, these members were Creole-French. In 1922 Maine founded the voudoun -Masonic order of "La Coleuvre Noire" ( Cult of the Black Snake ).

The whole Haitian movement culminated in a kind of federation of orders (O.T.O.A. etc.) to which several Martinist orders (Maine-lineage) were affiliated ;

The Universal Martinist Federation of Initiates

The Martinist Order of the Rose-Croix and Aleph-Initiates

The Interior Sanctuary of the Elus Cohens


Source ; Centro Studi Andres Kibisa, Martinist E-Group

More information on the movement of Lucien François Jean-Maine (1869-1960) : "Ordo Templi Orientis Antiqua" -- P.R. Koenig

De Pasqually's teachings and doctrine continued within small groups of "Kabbalistic Aeropagoi". De Pasqually's teachings continued also among masonic rites as Willermoz' C.B.C.S. (Knight Beneficent of the Holy City) and the R.E.R. (Régime Écossais Rectifié" or "Rectified Scottish Rite), a French templar rite based on Baron Von Hund's Stricte Observance (which includes the C.B.C.S.). At the end of the 19th century the Elus Cohen were "represented" by men such as Bergeron, Bréban-Salomon, Carl Michelsen ( Denmark) and Edouard Blitz (USA). "The immediate successors in France were Fugairon and Charles Détré" ( see profile of De Pasqually). Charles Détré (Téder) implemented the E*C* as higher grades. Bricaud succeeded Détré as Grand Master of the Martinist Order of Lyon (Ordre Martiniste-Martinéziste/ L’Ordre Martiniste de Lyon), which presided over the ORDER OF KNIGHT MASONS ELUS COHEN OF THE UNIVERSE, the E*C*.

In America Edouard Blitz worked the E*C* rite within the AMERICAN RECTIFIED MARTINIST ORDER. The 'original' Martinist Order under Papus had also implemented the E*C* rite within their system of Higher degrees. As we've seen before, the original O*M* worked towards a elaborated system of succeeding degrees, which were taken from several rites (Egyptian Masonry, OKR+C, E*C* etc.)

I've stated before in an earlier chapter that "the document regarding Teder's Martinist Ritual of 1913 also refers to several Elus Cohen Degrees which were equivalent to the Martinist Degrees Initiate and S.I." It is not known to me if the E*C* rite was actually "worked" under Papus, but it seems quite likely. After all " In 1893 the Martinist Order had obtained the original archives of Willermoz' C.B.C.S. and the archives of the "Elus Cohen" of Lyon". As a masonic rite the Elus Cohen only admitted men (note ; several sources claim that De Pasqually worked on the construction of a particular initiation ritual for ladies of the order, in the year of his death, 1774).

On April 4, 1942 a Martinist, Robert Ambelain, initiates two new members, Phalgus (Jules Boucher) and Baphometos. Paris was occupied and the Nazi's had prohibited all Order-activities, especially Masonry and other Initiatic Orders, Societies and Brotherhoods. All gatherings, publications etc. were forbidden by the Nazi's. The archives of the Orders were confiscated and often destroyed. During these years of prosecution and oppression several Martinists gradually worked on the reconstitution of the Order of the Elect Cohen, ORDRE DES CHEVALIERS MACONS ELUS-COHEN DE L'UNIVERS. Robert Ambelain (1907-1997) received his initiation from Henri Meslin de Champigny ( Harmonius ), probably in a temple of the Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel. One of the attending officers was Georges Bogé de Lagrèze

(Mikael). Georges de Lagrèze had been a member of Papus' Supreme Counsil and was its 'Inspecteur Principal'.

With regard to Ambelain's initiation into Martinism it turns out that he received several parallel lines of initiation. It appears that Joanny (Jean) Bricaud gave a "strict order" in June 1939 to Paul Langénie to confer the first degree (Associé) of Martinism to Robert Ambelain. Ambelain's 'lines of Martinist filiation' were ;

Papus - Téder - Georges de Lagze ( Mikael ) - Ambelain ( Aurifer ), received in December 1940

Augustin Chaboseau - Jean Chaboseau ( Galaad ) - Ambelain ( Aurifer )

Augustin Chaboseau - Henri Meslin de Champigny ( Harmonius ) - Ambelain

Both de Lagrèze and M. de Champigny were former members of Papus' Supreme Council. ( source ; " L' Initiation " no.3, 1980 )

The future Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohen of Ambelain has its "Martinist seeds" in the "Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel" of Chaboseau …


On September 24, 1942 there already existed a number of eight groups which were

'lead' by Ambelain and de Lagze. On April 4, 1943, the number in Paris had increased as far as eighteen groups. On September 29, 1943, another seven groups had been founded … At the end of 1943 the circle was also represented in cities like Calais, Lyon, and Nantes.

On August 15, 1944, De Lagrèze appointed Ambelain as a Delegate ( 95* ) of the Antient & Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim. De Lagrèze had given a charter of the M.'.M.'. including the following Degrees ; 4, 12, 14, 18, 32 and 33 followed by the supplemental grades 66, 90 and 95. De Lagrèze's charter which he gave to Ambelain, was based on a charter which he had received from John Yarker on September 9, 1909 ( 33* / 95* ), which was "confirmed" by Joanny (Jean) Bricaud.

De Lagrèze and Ambelain founded during the war also a M.'.M.'. Lodge (and its Chapter) called "Alexandria in Egypt", which resided in Ambelain's home …


Georges De Lagrèze was one of the prominent and leading characters of the 'occult community' at the time. He was the Grand Master of the "Rose+Croix d'Orient" (1879-1946). De Lagrèze also possessed the grade of "Grand Profès" of Willermoz' C.B.C.S., and he was the "Grand Master" of the ELUS COHEN (through the R.E.R., headed by Camille Savoir - successor of Willermoz- at the time). As mentioned earlier on, De Lagrèze received the grade of "Grand Profès" in 1937 from several dignitaries from the Grand Prieure d'Helvetia (at Geneva, Switzerland).

On the third of September, 1943, the ORDRE DES CHEVALIERS MACONS ELUS-COHEN DE L'UNIVERS, the "Elus Cohen", was officially "reconstituted" with De Lagrèze as Grand Master and Ambelain as its Deputy Grand Master. De Lagrèze conferred all the mentioned degrees to Ambelain / Aurifer. Both men were consecrated into the "Eglise Gnostique Apostolique". The Orders represented by Ambelain were in the possession of all the essential degrees, including the degree of "Reaux-Croix". The S.I. members of Ambelain's circle during the war, founded the group A.G.L.A. *

This small group of six members formed the first post-war synod …

* "Athah gobon leolam, Adonai ", "Thou art powerful and eternal, Lord." , ancient Hebrew word composed of the four initial letters of the Hebrew words Athah, Gobon, Leolam, and Adonai. This Kabbalistic 'formula' was used by the rabbis "in the practice of exorcism of evil spirits". 35 ~AGLA~35

Several well known Martinists / High Degree Masons were part of Ambelain and De Lagrèze's circle during the war, Jules Boucher (Phalgus), Robert Amadou (Ignifer), Rene Chambellant, Camille Savoir (R.E.R.) etc.

After the Second World War the Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohen was revived by three Martinists, one of them being Robert Ambelain / Aurifer.

Grand Master Georges De Lagrèze had died in April 1946 and was succeeded by Robert Ambelain.

Ambelain's revived O*M*EC is based on his filiation ( through Lagrèze ) to Willermoz' C.B.C.S., holding the High degrees of Profès and Grand Profès, to which he added his filiation to Papus' Martinist order ( S.I. ). His "Elus Cohen" filiation ( through Lagrèze ) was based on the R.E.R., headed by Camille Savoir. The highest degree of the R.E.R. was the rite of C.B.C.S. Ambelain affirmed in his book "Le Martinisme Contemporaine" (March, 1948, page 31) that Martinism did not have a legitimate lineage, except through the R.E.R., Régime Écossais Rectifié" or "Rectified Scottish System of Willermoz.

The curriculum of the Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohen included the study of the Kabbalah ("Practical Kabbalah"), study and practise of Theurgy as taught by Martinez De Pasqually, and Occultism…

The grade-system of the O*M*EC consisted of Four Degrees ;


KNIGHT OF THE ORIENT Chevalier d'Orient


4 RèAUX-CROIX Rèau-Croix

( Women are excluded from this Order )

These degrees belonged to the "Ordre des Chevaliers-Macons Elus-Cohen de L’Univers"/ "Order of Knight-Masons Elect Priests of the Universe", the Operative degrees. The "Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohens" also initiated into the usual three degrees of Martinism, this was the "outer order" which formed the ante-chamber of the Operative degrees.

The Higher Degrees of Ambelain's Elus Cohen were obtainded from De Pasqually's original Rite, which was originally divided into three classes + a "secret class". Ambelain's first degree (Master Elect Cohen) belonged to Pasqually's second class of degrees (Classe du Poche), his second and third belonged to Pasqually's third class (le Degrès du Temple), and his fourth belonged to Pasqually's secret class (le Classe Secrète) which contained the degree of Réau-Croix… The esoteric content of the third degree, Commander of the Orient (also known as "Grand Elu de Zorobabel") was based on the Eleusin Mysteries, it prepared the candidate for the secret grade of Rèau-Croix.

"The original significance of this grade according to Pasqually was through magical evocations to establish contact with the highest realms of the Spirits of the Eulis Cohens. When the Grand Architect had driven the demonical forces away from the sphere of the Earth, it lay in the hands of the Rèau Croix to attract the Celestial Forces, and transport these forces into the mundane Aura. These forces were brought down by either visual or acoustic manifestation through the Rêau Croix, in order to create a link to the original image of man. and thus integrating it within each individual soul. This philosophy was the main goal of Pasqually's teachings".

Source ; Martinez Pasqually and le Chevaliers Elus Coens, ACADEMIA MASONICA BOREALIS

The rituals of the Elus Cohen were very elobarate and time consuming, sometimes lasting up to six hours in length. De Pasqually made use of a special Incence for all Elus Cohen rituals, which included "a number of hallucinogenic substances including the famous Fly Agaric mushroom spores ". The use of Incence in ritual creates a particular mood or vibration. There's a book written by René de Forrestier, "La Franc-macconnerie occultiste au 18e siecle et l'Ordre des Elus Coens" in which De Pasqually's ritual work is "reconstructed".

Within the EC special attention is given at the equinoxes. The Theurgic work of a "Equinox Ritual" consists of an operation on five successive days for the Rèau-Croix in the months of March and September. De Pasqually used the Lunar-calendar, the most favourable time for 'Equinox Ritual work' lies between the 1st Quarter and Full moon. The regulations of the Equinox-ritual ;

Select date of "Full moon" in March / September

The Rèau-Croix starts the operation on the 5th day before Full moon (Theurgic work is practised on 5 successive nights ). All those who are not carrying the degree of Rèau-Croix, will carry out the operation together at the days and hours as indicated by the center

It is of importance to keep abstinence on all the planes

It is of importance to keep an "occult diary" and to consign all the phenomena which occur during these periods

Through De Lagrèze Ambelain had obtained the 'files of Martinez De Pasqually '. These files included De Pasqually's handwritten text: " Traitè de la Rèintegration des Etres dans leurs preières propriètès, vertus et puissances spirituelles et divines", the handwritten Rituals and catechisms of the Order, and the correspondence between Pasqually and his followers, especially Jean-Baptiste Willermoz from Lyon. The rituals of the Elus Cohen came from various sources, which enabled the revived order to practise the operative form of Elus Cohen Theurgy. The order, as in the case of Détré and Blitz, did not accept women and was preserved solely for males.

Ambelain always looked for possibilities to expand the order. One has to bear in mind that Ambelain lead a federation of orders, including M.'.M.'., Gnostic and Rosicrucian organizations. In 1957 Ambelain co-operated with Joseph Isidore Grasser, a High degree Mason (90*) from Switzerland, in the foundation of the "International Martinist Association ' Les Stephanois' ", I.M.A."Les Stephanois", International Grand Lodge, Paris. The information on this co-operation is very meagre, except the I.M.A. was also affiliated to the M.'.M.'.

Ambelain lead the Ordre Martinste des Elus Cohen from April 1946 up to August 1967. On Monday August 14, 1967, Robert Ambelain ( Aurifer ) appoints Ivan Mosca ( Hermete ) as his successor. In 1958 the "Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohen" united with Philippe Encausse's "L'Ordre Martiniste de Papus" and Henri Dupont's " L’Ordre Martiniste-Martinéziste de Lyon". In 1960 this federation gave birth to the "Ordre Martiniste" ( L’Ordre Martinist de Paris ). The O.M. was divided into an interior- and exterior circle. Ambelain's Elus Cohen formed the ' Interior circle ' called Order of the Elus Cohen .

On August 14, 1967, the interior- and exterior circle of the O*M* de Paris was disbanded. Both orders continued independently from each other.

On April 22, 1968 the Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohen was disbanded. The decision was made after a plenary meeting of the Tribunal Souverain in Paris. On August 14, 1968, the Elus Cohen went dormant by official decree of the Grand Commandeur Ivan Mosca / Hermete. The ' line of succession' of the Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohen from 1943 up to 1968 ;

Georges de Lagze ( Mikael, 1943-1946 ) - Robert Ambelain ( Aurifer, 1946-1967 ) - Ivan Mosca ( Hermete, 1967-1968 ).

Post Ambelain EC

After the dissolution of the O*M*EC in 1968 the former members of the Elus Cohen (Cohen, or Coëns, is the French version the Hebrew word "Cohanim" : a name for the highest class of priests in Jerusalem in biblical times) continued their Theurgical work on their own or in small groups. One of these groups, a small 'mixed' group of Elus Cohen in Nice, was lead by Rene Chambellant (1907-1997?).

His filiation is derived from a Canadian branch of the Elus Cohen (probably Sar Sendigovius' O*M*&S, which "inner order" was the E*C*). Chambellant ( Tau Renatus ) claims a lineage derived from Constant Chevillon in 1936. Chambellant was also initiated by Ambelain in 1944 into the Elus Cohen. Chambellant also possesses the degree of Grand Profès of Willermoz' C.B.C.S. Today Chambellant's Elus Cohen is affiliated to a federation of Martinist- Templar Masonic orders in which we find the Ordre Martiniste S:::I:::, the Ordre Martiniste des C.B.C.S., Ordre Chevaliers Macons Elus Cohen de L'Univers …. ( see "1997 Ordre Martiniste S:::I::: / O*M* de Luxembourg")

Robert Ambelain apparently refounded his Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohen back in 1994 with Andre Mauer as Grand-Secretaire (1996).

The Elus Cohen is also the "inner order" of the present-day Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique


1948 Ordre Martiniste Rectifié

Due to the F.U.D.O.S.I. Supreme Coucil its refusal to confirm Jean Chaboseau as Grand Master of the Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel, many members left the O*T*M*.

- Chapters 11+12 "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I."at

One of these members who left the O*T*M* was the Grand Secretary of the order, Jules Boucher ( Phalgus, 1902/02/28 - 1955/06/09 ). Boucher was initiated by Robert Ambelain on April 4, 1942. Boucher apparently also received an initiation by Augustin Chaboseau (date unknown).

In 1922 Boucher started his occult carreer with Jean-Julliet Champagne, who took Boucher and Eugene Canseliet on as students (Alchemy). This group of students would become known as LES FRERES D'HELIOPOLIS, "the Brotherhood of Heliopolis".

This brotherhood studied the works of the great Alchemists and was "lead" by the legendary "Fulcanelli" ( Who Fulcanelli really was is still a mystery ; some occultists think that "Fd'H" is synonymous to "Fulcanelli") . This group, however, was limited to Champagne, Canseliet, Sauvage, Jules Boucher, and a couple of others. Champagne and Canseliet were both directly connected with Fulcanelli's book "Le Mystere des Cathedrals".

Another group Boucher was involved with, was a group called GRAND LUNAIRE.

The Sigil of the Grand Lunaire was the Baphometis. According to Robert Ambelain the group was also involved in Black Magic.

Besides Boucher, men like Champagne and Rene Schwaller de Lubicz were members at one time. Just for the record, when Jules Boucher left the Grand Lunaire the Gnostic Bishop of Lyon seems to have performed an exorcism on Boucher (Jean Rosselot, O.V. de L.Milosz , Paris 1955 )

In the beginning of the 40's Boucher published the "Manuel de Magie Practique" (Niclaus, 1941- Dervy 1953 new edition). Boucher also founded an association which promoted the restoration of traditionnal Occultism : A R O T (tora).


In 1946 the "Les Amis de Saint-Martin" were founded, a group which Boucher highly respected and of which Boucher himself was probably a member. It is quite possible that the "Friends of Saint-Martin" were some kind of precursor of Boucher's O*M*R.

In 1948 Jules Boucher founded the ORDRE MARTINISTE RECTIFICIÉ.

The O*M*R* consisted, to a large extend, of former members of the O*M*T*.

Boucher's Martinist rite consisted of one,single Degree ;


The ' curriculum' of the O*M*R was based on the works and doctrine of L.C. de Saint-Martin. It was expected from members (and demanded from S:::I::: ) that they had a thorough knowledge of the works of Saint-Martin.

According to Boucher, the meaning of Sage Initié , "the Wise Adept", corresponded on a profound level with the traditional teachings of Saint-Martin.

"S:::I::: stands for "Superieur Inconnu", "Souverain Juge" (degree of the Elus Cohen), Société des Initiés", "Sociéte Inconnu", "Sage Inconnu", and some even claimed these initials stood for the "Sociéte de Jésus" !

"The "Ordre Martiniste Rectificié" calls the S.I. the "Wise Adept" ("Sage Initié"), or better : "One who walks the Path of Wisdom".

"The "Ordre Martiniste Rectificié" is a Spiritual fraternal order linking all those who freely admit the need for an individual and collective Redemption based on the lessons of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin. In accordance with the teachings of Saint-Martin the O*M*R acknowledges the truth of the Fall of mankind and affirms the need for Reconciliation of Man with his Principle (the Adept on the Path of Wisdom). The O*M*R respects all forms of the Tradition which are basically fragments of the One, primeordial Tradition" ( freely translated from Boucher's "Du Martinisme et des ordres Martinistes", 1950 ).

In 1950 Boucher published an article in the review "Le Symbolisme" called "Du Martinisme et des Ordres Martinistes". The article is a general survey on the 'Martinezism' of de Pasqually and the 'Martinism' of Saint-Martin. The intention of this publication was to draw attention to the O:::M:::R:::

Boucher's order was closely related to the "Eglise Gnostique Universelle" (Universal Gnostic Church). The O*M*R* also intended to "reconnect" Martinism with Masonry.

In his survey "Du Martinisme et des Ordres Martinistes" Boucher emphasizes that an order without a structure is not viable. According to Boucher in the same article, it is its structure what Masonry gives its vitality and permanence. Therefore, thus Boucher, the Rectified Martinist Order should be build on "a Masonic structure" in which the individual is respected, an aspect which characterizes "true Martinism". At the same time, without losing sight of its flexibility, this structure should also possess a kind of rigidity to "protect" the order's "cohesion". Boucher emphasizes on the structure of Masonic organizations which he intended to use as a blue-print for his own organization. He clearly stated in his survey ""Du Martinisme et des Ordres Martinistes" (1950) that the O*M*R should avoid to make the mistake Papus and Tedér had made, by transforming their Martinist rituals into copies of Masonic ones. In spite of Boucher's intentions and "enthusiasm" Masonry did not respond.

French Masonry, being in majority "hostile" towards Christianity, did not support Boucher's efforts.

Jules Boucher had not appointed a successor. When he died in 1955 the order declined. Jules Boucher was also a Mason, initiated during the occupation, who published an excellent title on the Symbolism of Freemasonry in 1948, "La Symbolique Symbolism of Freemasonry in 1948, "La Symbolique Maçonnique"


1952 Ordre Martiniste de Papus

World War II had taken its toll on Martinism, most of the representatives of the "original" Martinist Order were either dead or gone (except for Henri-Charles Dupont), and the conlicts between the various orders had caused many schisms within the original orders. In 1952 Pierre Neuville published an article which gave birth to the idea of a reconstitution of the ' original ' Ordre Martiniste of Papus.

Many of the "survivors" of the 'original' order, as well as a number of unattached French "Free Martinists", joined Papus' son, Dr.Philippe Encausse (1906/01/02 - 1984/07/22), who founded the ORDRE MARTINISTE DE PAPUS in December 1952 under the original constitution. In January 1953 a reissue of the original Martinist review "L'Initiation" is published by Encausse Jr.

first publication of "L'Initiation",

January 1953

The original journal was published from 1888 up to 1914. The reissue of January 1953 is no.52 in the series. Contemporary occultists as Robert Ambelain, Robert Amadou, Serge Hutin, Pierre Neuville, and of course Philippe Encausse published on a regular base in the Martinist review.

In 1975 Philippe Encausse sarted to divide the responsibilities of the magazine with Yves-Fred Boisset. When Encausse died in 1984, Boisset became the chief-editor of "l'Initiation", a position which he holds until this day.

In March-April 1957, the first General rules of the Martinist Order were published. It presented the organization and its structure ;

The Ordre Martiniste is lead by a ;

Board of Directors ( 7 members, Grand Inspecteur Général)

SUPRÊME CONSEIL (Supreme Council, 12 members including the President of the order and a President Ad Vitam )

The Jurisdiction(s) are lead by a

Grand Maître Provincial

Grands Conseils Provinciaux, each province is lead by a Grand Council, there are 14 provinces, of which one, Flandres-Artois (Belgium) is lead by a Maître Provincial.

A College is lead by a S:::I::: , Unknown Philosopher

The rituals are examined and recognized as the only valid ones for initiations, these are indicated under " Rituel de 1957 ".

Several Martinist Lodges/Chapters are quoted in this publication, - Kosmos (Fides), Papus (Paris), Louis Claude de Saint-Martin (Toulouse).

In the mid-fifties Philippe Encausse handed over all Martinist Documents, Charters, and files to Robert Amadou . Amadou made researches into the validity of filiation of the Martinist Order. The conclusion of Amadou's analysis was published in Ambelain's "le Martinisme contemporain" in March 1948 (page 31), in which Ambelain affirms Amadou's claim that "Martinism" does not possess a valid line of succession. The only ' legitimate' lineage runs through Willermoz' R.E.R which incorporates the C.B.C.S. ( a rite which "integrates" Von Hundt's Stricte Observance with De Pasqually's Elus Cohen). In other words, the only valid form of Martinism which holds an unbroken line of initiation is a Martinist who's initiated into the highest grade of the R.E.R. (C.B.C.S., "Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte / Knights Beneficent of the Holy City ")

Amadou's thesis stated that "Louis Claude de Saint-Martin never founded the Martinist Order, nor transmitted any Martinist initiations through ritual. Saint-Martin acted, therefore, from an affiliation of "Desire" (L'Homme de Desir) and a spiritual affiliation, which little by little formalized ritualistically, under the influence of various personalities, notably Novikov and Papus".

In 1958 Philippe Encausse, Henri Dupont, and Robert Ambelain decided to join forces …


Fédération des Ordres Martinistes / Union des Ordre Martinistes

The idea Philippe Encausse had was to reunite all the original Martinist organizations into one Martinist federation. In 1958 a draft-agreement was signed (by the Sovereign Grand Masters) between the Ordre Martiniste de Papus, under the leadership of Philippe Encausse, the Ordre Martiniste- Martinéziste ( L’Ordre Martiniste de Lyon ), under the leadership of Henri-Charles Dupont*, and finally the Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohen under the leadership of Robert Ambelain. The statutes of the federation, the "Union des Ordre Martinistes", were signed on Sunday, October 26, 1958. The "Ordre Martiniste de Lyon" changed its name to "Ordre Martiniste-Martinéziste".

The rituals and symbols of the three orders were adjusted to each other. From 1958 onwards all the ritualistic and symbolic attributes used by the orders were compatible with each other.

The "Protocol of the Union of the Martinist Orders" recognizes the authority of the following Martinist currents which sprang from the original order of Papus and Chaboseau :

Ordre Martinist- Martinéziste (succession Téder, Bricaud, Chevillon, Dupont )

Ordre Martiniste de Papus , the Martinist Order founded by Dr.Philippe Encausse

Ordre Martiniste des Elus-Cohen ( succession Lagrèze, Savoire, CBCS, Ambelain, ' the O*M*EC preserves the archives of the Martinéziste current'.

The Union or Federation is presided by the Sovereign Grand Masters and their assistants. A declaration on the origins of the organization claims that "Martinism" is derived from Papus and Chaboseau, "Willermozism" is derived from the para-masonic rite of the " Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte" , CBCS, founded in 1778 in Lyon by Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, and "Martinézism" is derived from the "Ordre des Chevaliers Macons Elus-Cohen", founded by Don Martinez de Pasqually in 1758 in Bordeaux.

All the other existing Martinist organizations outside of France originated from one of these three currents. The "Board of Directors" will meet 4 times a year and at least on the first Sunday which follows an equinox or a solstice. The official review of the three orders will be Philippe Encausse's re-issue of "L'Initiation". The federation is lead by Dr.Philippe Encausse

In 1960, two months before he died, Henri-Charles Dupont appointed Philippe Encausse on August 13 as his successor within the Martinist Order ….

The British Grand Lodge (Sovereign Grand Lodge) of the "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique" officially joins the Federation in 1960. In September 1959 the O*M*&S already established fraternal relations with the "Union des Ordres Martinistes" .


Charles-Henri Dupont, 1877/02/19 - 1961/10/01. Patriarch of the "Eglise Gnostique Universelle", Sovereign Grand Master of the "Ordre Martiniste- Martinéziste (successor of Constant Chevillon since March 25, 1944), Grand Master "Ad Vitam" of the "Rite Ancien et Primitif de Memphis-Misraim", and "Chevalier bienfaisant de la Cité Sainte ". Dupont was a member of Lodge "Liberté et Progrès".



1960 Ordre Martiniste ( L’Ordre Martinist de Paris )

When Dr.Philippe Encausse received the Martinist succession from Charles-H. Dupont, Encausse became the Sovereign Grand Master of two Martinist Orders, O*M* de Papus and O*M*-Martinéziste. Encausse merged both orders into one, the O*M*. Encausse also received the succession of the Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix (OKR+C). The masonic qualification which was given by Téder (1916-'17) was removed (1).

But the O*M* de Paris did develop some Masonic activities. At the initiative of dr.Philippe Encausse a Grand Priory of the Rectified Scottish Rite (R.E.R.) was established. The Priory existed and was 'active' during the sixties …

In 1961 another attempt was made to reconnect Martinism with Masonry. In that year a Lodge was founded under the Obedience of the 'GRANDE LOGE FRANCAISE-OPERA', which required of its candidates to be initiated into Martinism . The Martinist qualification was removed in 1973.

In 1962 the Ordre Martiniste (de Paris) and Ambelain's O*M* des Elus Cohen merged into one Martinist Order, which was comprised of 2 circles, an exterior circle and an interior circle.

Exterior Circle - called "Order of Saint-Martin" (comprised of the 'old' Martinist Order and the exterior order of the O*M* des Elus Cohen. This order includes members of both sexes (except SI4, Women needed approval from the 'Board of Directors') and initiates into the following degrees: A, A I, S I, S I 4 .

Interior Circle - called "Order of Elect Cohen" , this order excludes women and initiates into the following degrees: [1st degree -] Master Elect-Cohen ,[2nd degree -] Knight of the Orient , [3rd Degree -] Commander of the Orient, [4th Degree -] Réaux-Croix

The Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix confers the Degrees of "Bachelor", "Master", and "Doctor of Kabbalah" , to members who have "attained and passed the 3rd degree of "Unknown Superior" (S.I.).

The Grand Masters are AD Vitam, Sovereign Grand Master Philippe Encausse shall govern the M*O*, "Ordre de Saint-Martin", Sovereign Grand Commander Robert Ambelain shall govern the "Ordre Martiniste des Elus Cohen".

The traditional ties of the Martinist Order with the Eglise Gnostique Apostolique Universelle (Gnostic Apostolic Universal Church ) were continued.

The order was lead by a "Souverain Directoire" consisting of 8 members, the protocol being signed "Jean" (Dr.Philippe Encausse) and "Aurifer" (Robert Ambelain), October 28, 1962. The protocol was published in "L'Initiation", no.2, 1963.

On December 31, 1962 the O*M* de Paris counted 26 'active' groups and 15 circles in France.

English transl. of the 'protocol of the union…" at

Mike Restivo (Sar Ignatius, Initiatèur Libre)

The Interior Circle was later renamed "Ordre des Chevaliers Macons Elus-Cohen de l'Univers". The "Union des Ordre Martinistes" only lasted for 5 years. "On August 14, 1967, the interior- and exterior circle of the O*M* de Paris was disbanded. Both orders continued independently from each other" In 1967 Robert Ambelain resigns as Sovereign Grand Commandeur of the Elus Cohen. Ambelain appoints Ivan Mosca (Hermete, born in Parma Italy, 1915) as his successor on June 29, 1967. One year later, on April 22, 1968 the O*M*EC was disbanded. Ambelain would found in 1968 the "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique. At the end of the sixties Encausse's O*M* gave birth to several branches which would continue as independent orders, although they maintained their fraternal relations with the O*M* de Paris. The reason for the separation was a protocol that was signed by Philippe in 1968, which confirmed the alliance between the Universal Gnostic Church and the Martinist Order. Philippe Encausse was ordained into the Priesthood of the Gnostic Church. The protocol was a confirmation of the alliance of 1911 (the Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas refers to the "alliance of 1918"), in which the Universal Gnostic Church of Bricaud was recognized as being the ' official' church of the O*M*.

The signing of the protocol by Philippe Encausse implied that "the theology defined by the Gnostic Church, the official teaching of his Martinist Order and the services of that church were to become the official sacramental support for its members. Many Martinists objected to this limitation of their religious freedom"( O*M* des Pays-Bas ) .
By permission of the Grand Master of the O*M*, Dr.Philippe Encausse, several independent branches, mostly outside of France, were established (in close co-operation with the O*M* in Paris), such as :

Ordre Martiniste Suisse (Switzerland)

Ordre Martiniste Belge (Belgium)

Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas (Netherlands)

These orders were founded (on Encausse's request) to "offer an alternative to the objecting members of his Order". A number of members just resigned from the O*M*, and several of these members established some minor Martinist organizations, such as; "Ordre Martiniste Secret", "Ordre Martiniste Universel". Another schism occurred in 1983 when several members left Encausse's O*M* and founded the "Ordre Martiniste Libre ". Then, in 1996 a schism occurred also within the O*M*L, which gave birth to the "Ordre Martiniste S:::I::: ".

In 1971 Philippe Encausse resigned as Grand Master of the O*M* and is succeeded by Irenee Séguret as Grand Master and Maurice Gay as Deputy Grand Master. The O*M* has it seats at 3, rue du Cardinal-Mercier in Paris. Irenee Séguret resigns as GM at the end of 1974 and on Januari 1, 1975, Philippe Encausse ( Honorary President of the O*M* between '71-'75 ) returns as Grand Master, finally resigning in September, 1979. The Board of Directors ( Chambre de Direction ) voted secretly for a new candidate. A propostion is made on October 27, 1979 ;

Emilio Lorenzo - President

Leger - vice-President

Emilio Lorenzo is elected by the 'Chambre de Direction' on October 27, 1979 as Grand Master of the Ordre Martiniste (de Paris).

The lineage of the O*M* de Paris ;

Gerard Encausse / Papus 1891-1916

Charles Détré / Téder 1916-1918

Jean (Joanny) Bricaud 1918-1934

Constant Chevillon 1934-1944, assassinated by the Vichy Militia.

Charles-Henry Dupont 1944-1960

Philippe Encausse 1960-1971

Irenee Séguret 1971-1974

Philippe Encausse 1975-1979

Emilio Lorenzo 1979- … )

The Ordre Martiniste (de Paris) became the largest Martinist Order after the Second World War.

Philippe Encausse published during his lifetime several books on occult subjects etc., some of his books and publications ;

Le Maitre Philippe, de Lyon: Thaumaturge et "Homme de Dieu", Dr. Philippe Encausse, Éditions Traditionnelles [In French]

Sciences occultes et déséquilibre mental. 2e édit. rev. et augm. Paris, Payot, 1944. (1er édit. Paris, 1935).

ENCAUSSE Philippe, Sciences occultes ou 25 années d'occultisme occidental - Papus, sa vie, son oeuvre, Paris, Ocia, 1949, 552 p.

Papus, Philippe Encausse -ed. belfond


The most prolific Martinist authors were Robert Amadou and Robert Ambelain.


Ordre Martiniste Belge

The "O*M* Belge" was founded on October 26, 1968, by Gustave Lambert Brahy (1894-1988). The order was established after Philippe's Encausse's decision to sign the protocol of the alliance between the O*M* de Paris and the Universal Gnostic Church (E.G.A.)

Brahy was a member of the Suprême Conseil de ‘L’Ordre Martiniste. Other members of the Supreme Council were Pierre-Marie Hermant, Stéphane Beuze and Maurice Warnon (Maurice Warnon left in 1975, when he was appointed Grand Master of the "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas).


Brahy started to study Astrology in 1920. At the end of the 1920's he became interested in Yoga and began to practise respiratory exercizes. He also experimented with Theurgy. "The combination of the two practises, associated with his poor health (he had contracted the Spanish influenza during the War of 1914-1918, of which he never entirely recovered), resulted in a series of dreaming, sleepwalking, hypnotic experiences lasting for several years, until he developped a controled clairvoyance". He had joined the "Theosophic Society" in 1924, and its "Esoteric Section" in 1926. Brahy also became a member of Leadbetter's "Liberal Catholic Church".

Brahey left the T.S. in 1929, after the leaders of the Society began to promote Krishnamurti as the new Messiah. In 1929 he became president of Max Heindel's "Rosicrucian Fellowship" in Belgium. Apparently, Brahy's young daughter miraculously recovered after a desperate request (as a last resource) for "Healing work" addressed to the rosicrucian order of Oceanside, California. Brahy opened a Rosicrucian Temple (Brussels? / Antwerp?) and served as President of the Belgian branch of the R.F. until 1935.

In 1926 Brahy had founded the "Institut d'Astrologie","with the purpose to improve the training of Astrologers and to modernize the calculation of Native Charts and projections". The Astrological Institute started to publish a review named "Demain", the review would be universally known and appreciated. Its publication was terminated in the 1970's.

In 1927 Brahy meets the Vicomte de Herbais de Thun, who will later initiate him into the Belgian branch of Chaboseau's Martinist Order (note; it was actually Emile Ehlers who was Brahy's Initiator). With two other Martinists, Emile Dantinne and Emile Ehlers, Brahy (Eleusis ) is involved in the foundation of the F.U.D.O.S.I., but Ehlers (who owns an Occult bookstore) and Brahy didn't want to see their names associated with the F.U.D.O.S.I. and remained silent partners, as friends of Dantinne.

After the Second World War Dantinne became dishearted, the F.U.D.O.S.I. lost his Universal character, and A.M.O.R.C. became too powerful to the liking of many European members. In that period, 1935-1945, Brahy published several novels, works about Astrology, and translations in French of several of the works of Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton .

Until 1950 Brahy had published commercial Astrological predictions. He had been frequently submitted to the accusation "that associated Astrology with Charlatanism". Brahy discontinued these publications.

Around 1950 Brahy decided to join the "Ordre Martiniste de Papus" of Philippe Encausse. One of his motives to resume his work as a Martinist was to restore the spirit of the original F.U.D.O.S.I. In 1968 Gustave-Lambert Brahy was nominated Grand Master of the "Ordre Martiniste Belge".

As an Astrologer he would continue a private practise. Brahy was often consulted by Market specialists (mostly from the U.S.A.) In the Eighties Brahy was the court-Astrologer of King Hassan II of Morocco. Gustave-Lambert Brahy died in 1988.

( profile on Brahy , Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas )

After Brahy died the whole Belgian branch almost collapsed. In 1991 a small group still worked under the leadership of Nicolas Leruitte ( Souverain Délégué pour la Belgique ). Leruitte lead the "Ordre Martiniste Belge" until October 12, 2000. He was succeeded by a "Robert F." , who continues the O*M*B as Sovereign delegate of the order.


1968 (1975) Martinisten Orde der Nederlanden / O*M* des

Pays- Bas

The "Martinist Order of the Netherlands" was founded on September 26, 1968 by Philippe Encausse. Like the O*M* Belge, the Martinist Order of the Netherlands was established after Philippe's Encausse's decision to sign the protocol of the alliance between the O*M* de Paris and the Universal Gnostic Church (E.G.A.)

Philippe Encausse appointed Maurice Warnon to organize and lead the order. Warnon was a member of the Supreme Council in Paris and "co-founded" the O*M* de Paris in 1960.


In 1964 Warnon left Belgium and emigrated to the United States. Warnon had studied pedagogy, methodology and psychology at the university of Brussels. He later studied Information-Technology at the IBM Centre at Genval (Belgium), at the "Empire State University Albany", and at the Massachussets Institute of Technology in Boston. Warnon is also a Bishop of the "Liberal Catholic Curch" and is, since 1976, the leader of this church in Canada and Belgium. Warnon's wife, Joanna Mathilde Poortman (born March 27, 1937, The Hague, Holland) leads the "Order of the World-Mother", and is an active member of both the "Order of the Round Table" and of the "Martinist Order of the Netherlands". The Warnon-family are living on "King's Garden" in an old mansion which was build in 1820. "King's Garden" is also the headquarters of the M*O des Pays-Bas and the other orders mentioned.

Warnon was initiated by Gustave-Lambert Brahey. Brahy was initiated by Emile Ehlers (1886?-1953). Ehlers had an Occult bookstore on the Avenue Jean-Volders in Brussels, Belgium. Ehlers had received his initiation from Emile-Dantinne. Dantinne was much more involved in Rosicrucianism and his own organizations then Martinism. Emile Ehlers received the complete Martinist archives from Dantinne (which included the material of Chaboseau's O*M*T and Blanchard's O*M*&S). When Ehlers died in 1953 it was Maurice Warnon who inherited the complete archive through Ehlers widow. On March 15, 1969 Maurice Warnon (Artifex) was appointed "Souverain Délégate National" of the M*O* des Pays-Bas. "King's Garden" (Rock Tavern, NY 12575, near New Winsor, state of New York, U.S.A.) has two Martinist Chapters, "Louis Claude de Saint-Martin", lead by Frater Hermes S.I.I., and "Quator Coronati", lead by Frater Artifex S.I.I. (Warnon)

( notes on Warnon ; Marcel Roggemans )

After Martinism was introduced in the Netherlands and a Sovereign National Representative (M.Warnon) was appointed by Philippe Encausse, the first Dutch Martinist group was installed in 1970. The group "Jacob Boehme, No.65, Collège d'Amsterdam", received its Charter from the Supreme Council in Paris on November 9, 1970. Nine months before, on February 20, 1970, Philippe Encausse (as President of the Federation of the Martinist Orders) had proposed the establishment of an independent Martinist Order in the Netherlands. But the Dutch members decided to remain attached to the Order in Paris for the time being. In the following years the Dutch order worked closely with Paris, and it became apparent that the Order in the Netherlands objected against the close relationship between the Martinist Order and the Universal Apostolic Gnostic Church. The Dutch Order wanted to keep complete freedom of religion and worship. At the annual gathering of the Dutch Martinists ( the so-called "Martinist Days" ) in September 1975 , the decision for independence was made. The "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas" was founded under a new constitution on September 12, 1975. The Supreme Council was formed by the Officers of Chapter "Jacob Boehme". These Officers became the first "Suprême Conseil de l'Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas, No 1, collège d'Amsterdam", The former group "Jacob Boehme" became "Jacob Boehme No 2, collège d'Amsterdam" "by the first Charter issued by the new Supreme Council". Members of the first Supreme Council were : Maurice Warnon, Augustus Goetmakers, Bep Goetmakers, Ferme Iken, Annie Iken and Joan Warnon-Poortman.

The "Martinisten Orde der Nederlanden" has four "Initiatic Degrees". Art. 108 of the "Declaration of Principles" :

"The Martinist Order spreads its teaching in four degrees, called "initiatic" degrees, that are received by its members according to a definite ritual and schedule.Three "administrative" degrees exist, that are bestowed upon the members, taking the responsibility of the administrative direction of the Order".

The present-day Order has 4 Martinist Chapters in the Netherlands; in Amsterdam (Jacob Boehme No.2."), Haarlem, Enschede, and Amersfoort ("Aurora, collège d'Naarden). Besides the Netherlands, the M*O* des Pays-Bas is represented all over the world, in Belgium, France, Great Britain, Canada, and the U.S.A.

"The Martinist Order of the Netherlands is not a territorial jurisdiction, but a specific orientation of the Martinist movement. It maintains close relationship with all the other Martinist organizations, and welcomes all the Martinists as visitors. It has grown into an international Order, having more than thirty Chapters in five countries and in three continents"

( O*M* des Pays-Bas )


1968 Ordre Martiniste Initiatique

The O*M*I, "l'Ordre Martiniste Initiatique", was founded in 1968 by Christianne Buisset. In the beginning Robert Ambelain assisted Mrs.Buisset. Ambelain was appointed Grand Maitre of the O*M* Initiatique. One year before, in August 1967, Ambelain resigned from the office of Grand Commandeur of the O*M* des Elus Cohen. The information on the establishment of the O*M*I is rather obscure. Other sources state that the O*M*Initiatique was founded by Ambelain within the bosom of the "Rite Ancien et Primitif de Memphis-Misraim". Pietro Turchetti in his book "Il Filosofo Incognito " (Arktos, 1995, p.79) states that on "April 28, 1968 a
circular from Aurifer
(Robert Ambelain) announced the constitution of the OMI with a
Russian filiation from St Martin

In 1974 Ambelain officially declared that the O*M* Initiatique was dissolved (declaration October 13, 1974). Ambelain already informed Philippe Encausse of the O*M* on August 26 regarding the decision of disbanding the O*M* Initiatique. It is not clear why this decision was made.

The dissolution of the O*M* Initiatique concerned the Order in France; Ambelain (according to information derived from Fr.Fiducius) had expelled Christianne Buisset and her husband from the Martinist obedience.

Christianne Buisset proclaimed that the Order also had a valid filiation descending from an "obscure" Russian Martinist connection. Buisset would also become a high dignitary in the seventies of Roger Caro's church "Eglise Universelle de la Nouvelle Alliance / ENA, which was the 'outer' order of the "Freres Aines de la Rose+Croix" / FAR+C, a Rosicrucian order based on the study of Alchemy.

According to a document (16 pages) of the Order, dated June 5, 1973, the "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique" represents an "esoteric school " based upon the teachings of Martinez de Pasqually, Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, and Eliphas Lévi.

This document once belonged to Peter Maydan (sar Parsifal- Sar Petrus, see Chapter on O*M*&S ) who apparently visited the O*M*I -Lodge "Eliphas Lévi " at the time (source: Marcel Roggemans, Belgium). After Ambelain's decision to dissolve the O*M*I Buisset continued her activities with the "Les Amis d'Eliphas Lévi ". On Tuesday April 1, 1975 the association "les amis d'Eliphas Lévi " had its first meeting at 13, villa des acacias, 92200 Neuilly. Christianne Buisset lead this meeting ( as chairwoman ).

Abroad the O*M* Initiatique continues its activities under a new Grand Master, specifically in South-America. The O*M* Initiatique already had an active branch working in Chile in 1968, the "Orden Martinista de Chile" (see "Martinism in South-America; "Orden Martinista Inicíata de Chile" ).

Not much is known about the history of the "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique".

The O*M* Initiatique was presented, as stated before, as a Hermetic, Esoteric School. For instance, the branch in Chile worked closely with the Memphis-Rite (of which Ambelain was "Sovereign Grand Master" at the time).

Ambelain lead several initiatic organizations which were closely linked with each other ; The Martinist Order, Memphis-Misraim Rite, Elus Cohen, Kabbalistic Order of the Rose+Cross, and the E.G.A., Ecclesia Gnostica Apostolica, the "Gnostic Catholic Apostolic Church" ("Catholic" as in "Universal ").

Like John Yarker, Theodoor Reuss and Papus, Ambelain continued a system of Higher Degrees, in which all aspects of ("Western") Occultism and Mysticism were taught. The "1973 Maydan- Document" contains a historical outline of the Order, the "Lines of Succession" on which the order its 'authority' is based, and some general information regarding Lodge "Eliphas Lévi ".

As mentioned before " the "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique" represents an "esoteric school " based upon the teachings of Martinez de Pasqually, Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, and Eliphas Lévi ". There's a 'historical outline' on the tradition of the order (6 pages). The O*M* Initiatique refers to "the year 1570 as the date of birth of the " Fraternitas Crucis Aureae" ( "Gold und Rosenkreuzer", "Golden Rosicrucians").

The order also refers to the 16 th century "Militia Crucifera Evangelica". The Traditional history of the O*M* Initiatique states that the M.C.E. merged with the Golden Rosicrucians of 1570. On a later date the M.C.E. / Golden R+C seperated into the "Aurea Crucis Fratres" and the "Rosae Crucis Fratres". According to the O*M* Initiatique the Fratres Rosae Crucis later developed into the first "Invisible College" which eventually became the famous "Royal Society" -.

The existence of the Golden Rosicrucians is confirmed through a document dated 1590, which one can find in the "Baden-Württemberg National Library " in the German city of Stuttgart. At the same library, listed under "Cod. Theol. et Philos. 2° 34", one can also find the "Naometria", a book written in 1604 by Simon Studion, the founder of the "Militia Crucifera Evangelica".

The references of the Traditional historical outline of the "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique" to great men like Cornelius Agrripa, Michael Maier, Heinrich Kunrath, Robert Fludd etc. reveal a connection between the O*M*Initiatique and Rosicrucianism.

In 1984 Robert Ambelain is appointed "Honorary President" of the "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique". The source from which this information is derived (R A in "Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie"), states that the successor of Ambelain was a G K . G K stands for Gérard Kloppel.The degrees of the O*M* Initiatique ;

Associé -

Initié -

Superieur Inconnu -

Supérieur Inconnu Initiateur ( Chevalier de Palestine ).

Lodge "Eliphas Lévi " was founded in 1965, which was confirmed by a document of the Grand Master of the O*M*, dated February 8, 1965. Lodge "Eliphas Lévi " is recognized by its filiation to the Russian branch of Novikov. This is confirmed by a document, dated July 28, 1970, signed in Lodge "Saint Georges", under the auspices of the Ukrainian branch. Lodge "Eliphas Lévi " includes the teachings of Lévi in its doctrines, which is rather "unique" within Martinism. Adolphe Desbarolles, who initiated Amélie de Boisse-Mortemart, was a disciple of Eliphas Lévi, this explains the view of the lodge. The lodge also confirms the influence of Lévi on Papus, Saint-Yves d’Alveydre and Philippe Nizier. The studies are centred upon the Kabalah, Astrology, and Mythology . The Lodge keeps a low-profile and membership in this Hermetic Martinist Order is discreet and exclusive and restricted to Freemasons only.

According to Fr.Fiducius from South-America the O*M* Initiatique of the present-day ("Ordre Martiniste Initiatique Reforme") is represented in France, Italy, and Russia.

Marcel Roggemans from Belgium sais that it is hard to tell where the order is represented, he thinks that the order is represented in Canada and in the cities of Paris and Brussels. The Masonic "Orden Masónica Hermético Quabalista" from Chile is derived from the South-American branch of the O*M*Initiatique.


last page from the proclamation of the birth

of the "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique", Orient de Paris, June 30 1968,

R. Ambelain

The "Lines of Succession" of the "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique" are derived from Robert Ambelain, who held an ancient Russian Martinist lineage, or more specific, a "Martinézist" lineage.

"Louis Claude de Saint-Martin was initiated into the Elus Cohen of Martinez de Pasqually. Saint-Martin initiated a Friedrich Tiemann von Berend who apparently was employed at the Russian Court at the time as one of the advisors of Prince Alexander Galitzine".

The "line of Succession" of the O*M*Initiatique ; filiation Robert Ambelain ;

LC de Saint-Martin, 1772

Friedrich Tiemann von Berend

Prince Alexander Galitzine

Nicola Ivanovich Novikov



Nicolai Chouminski , pupil and disciple of Charles Barlet

Robert Ambelain (Aurifer)

Johannes Karolus (G.Seri ), Grand Master for Italy - Gerard Kloppel (GM for France)

( source - Fr.Fiducius, Ordo Fratres Lucis )

Other sources (i.a. M.Roggemans) state that the O*M*Initiatique has two parallel "Lines of Succession", the so-called Russian branch and the so-called Ukrainian branch (confirmed by a Charter, dated December 7, 1971). The second lineage is identical to the one carried by the ‘Ordre Martinist des Chevaliers du Christ’ (see Chapter "1971 O*M*CC). Louis Claude de Saint-Martin initiates a Russian diplomat in France, Prince Kourakine. Kourakine initiates Novikov (author, publisher, dignitary of Freemasonry in Russia and dignitary of the Rosicrucians (German "Gold und Rosenkreuzer") in Russia. Novikov apparently initiated both Chouminsky and the writer Garnalei ( see "O*M*CC )



1971 Ordre Martiniste des Chevaliers du Christ O*M*CC

This order was founded after Sar Hermes (Serge Marcotoune) had passed away, on January 15, 1971 by Armand Toussaint (1985/01/28 - 1994/07/04) under the name of "Ordre Martiniste des Chevaliers du Christ". Toussaint was initiated in Paris as S.I. by Marcotoune. Marcotoune had instructed Toussaint to establish a lodge in Brussels, Belgium.

Serge Marcotoune was a member and dignitary of lodge "Saint Andre " in the 1930's in Kiev, Ukraine, and was also a member of the Supreme Council for the South of Russia. He received the S.I. degree from Pierre Kasnatchéev in 1930. Lodge "Saint Andre " had been officially recognized by Jean Bricaud in 1922. Marcotoune had gathered many Russian and Ukrainian Martinist refugees around him. A branch of this Kiev-lodge, "Saint André l'apôtre ", existed in Paris at the end of the 1930's. In 1939 Marcotoune moved to the Canary Islands. After the war Marcotoune's Martinist lodge was not re-activated. Besides the authorization given to Armand Toussaint to establish a Brussels Lodge, Marcotoune chartered George Terapiano to represent the Russian Martinist Order on January 22, 1970. The Russian Martinists are autonomous.

ARMAND TOUSSAINT (Jan.28, 1895 - July 4, 1994, "Raymond Panagion")

A convinced ' humanitarian' by nature, Toussaint was "internationally" orientated and more than interested in the fraternization of occult brotherhoods and societies. Toussaint was therefore very interested in Remy Boyer's "Arc en Ciel" and its successor "Groupe de Thèbes " ( see "FUDOSI 1934-1951" Ch.14 "post-FUDOSI era " ). Toussaint was a close friend of Fr.Wittemans (author of "the New & Authentic History of the Rosicrucian Order ", see "FUDOSI 1934-1951" Add.4 "notes on Chapter 5, Egyptian Masonry " ) and was also associated with Roger and Madeleine Caro (1). Besides his Martinist work within the O*M*CC, Toussaint was Patriarch of the Russian "Apostolic Church of the Rose+Cross" / "Eglise Rosicrucienne Apostolique" (lineage Bricaud, Blanchard, Ambelain, Roger Dechamps, and finally Toussaint ), and a member of Roger Caro's " FRERES AINES DE LA ROSE+CROIX " (1). Armand was the Honorary Grand Master of the FAR+C. Toussaint also founded in 1971 the "Fraternité Rosicrucienne’ ". Armand Toussaint was a member of Max Heindel's "Rosicrucian Fellowship" (Oceanside, California). Toussaint lead the Belgian branch of Heindel's rosicrucian organization from 1933 up to 1970. Because Toussaint had difficulties accepting certain dogmatic doctrines he left the "Rosicrucian Fellowship" and founded the "Fraternité Rosicrucienne’ " in 1971.


1) ROGER CARO / FRERES AINES DE LA ROSE+CROIX Roger Caro ("Pierre Phoebus", 1911-1992) was a professor in Theology, Commander of the "Ordre Patriarcal des Chevaliers de la Sainte-Croix de Jerusalem", a member of the "Academia Gentium 'Pro Pace' " (Rome, Italy) , and he carried the medal of honor of the "Vermeil des Arts, Sciences et Lettres". Caro also headed the "Freres Aines de la Rose+Croix", - F.A.R.+C., the "Inner Order" of the "Eglise Universelle de la Nouvelle Alliance", E.N.A. The F.A.R+.C. does not reveal itself to the outside world since 1972. According to Caro's son , Daniel Caro, F.A.R.+C. was a continuation of the "TEMPLE INITIATIQUE ALCHIMIQUE d'AJUNTA" , a organization founded in the sixties by Jean Deleuvre, a.k.a. "Kamala-Jnan". As its name implies, the "Temple Initiatique Alchimique" was an Alchemical Order, where the Art of Alchemy was studied. When Deleuvre died, Roger Caro became his successor and renamed the organization "Freres Aines de la Rose+Croix", F.A.R.+C. According to Daniel Caro, the F.A.R.+C. was dissolved in 1973 to work in silence for 25 years "corresponding to rosicrucian tradition" (??) . "Officially" the FAR+C does not exist anymore (disbanded by Daniel Caro after his father had died), but there are small groups who are still working within the framework of the FAR+C. In Borsbeek, Belgium, a pupil and disciple of Caro, Coster, founded the "ORDRE RENOVEE ET SOUVERAIN DES FRERES AINES DE LA ROSE+CROIX", an Order divided into 9 degrees based on the Egyptian Mysteries of On-Heliopolis, which sprang from the "SHEMSU HERU" ('Sons of Horus'), the original Egyptian Priesthood which was responsible for the initiationrite of the Faraos. The O.R&S F.A.R.+C. is the "inner" order of the "ORDO MYSTICUS MILITIS SANCTI JOANNIS" (a philantropic order), which represents in Europe the "Religious Order of the Christos and of the Rose Cross", a Rosicrucian Society situated in the U.S.A. De Coster's Renovated and Sovereign Order F.A.R.+C was founded "to preserve the work and teachings of Roger Caro".

In the 1980's Arman Toussaint authorized Triantaphyllos Kotzamanis (Tau- or Sar Hieronymus) and Tau Pol Lysis (real name "unknown") to establish lodges under the name of "Loges de Chevaliers Vert" ("Lodges of the Green Knights"). The O*M*CC prospored quickly, and has jurisdictions on almost all continents.

In 1992 Toussaint founded the Martinist lodge "Cinabro" which was dedicated to the study of Alchemy, as taught by Roger Caro. Toussaint was also friendly with Eugène Canseliet, disciple of "Fulcanelli" and member of the former FRERES D'HELIOPOLIS.

As mentioned earlier in the text, Touissant (co-) lead the "Eglise Rosicrucienne Apostolique, which worked in close alliance with the ENA of Roger Caro. Toussaint's partner was Marcel Jirousek, from Brussels, Belgium. Jirousek was a pupil of Robert Ambelain . Toussaint passed many of the initiations he himself once received on to Jirousek and also to Caro. Armand Toussaint was a prominent personality and well-known within occult circles.

Because of his 'status', Toussaint was often approached in connection with confering charters, initiations etc.

Kotzamanis (who also leads the "Order of Hermes & Orpheus") is responsible for the Greek lodge "Sar Hieronymus" in Athens, Greece. The branch in the United States is known as the "Martinist Order of the Knights of Christ ", and is headed by Sar Zohariel, Master Director of Lodge Muriel of the Green Knights. The headquarters of the American branch is in New-York. This branch has a Russian filiation.

The O*M*CC is lead by a Supreme Council and a "Master Director". The Supreme Council is composed of "Unknown Superiors"/ "Free Initiators" ( S.I./ S.I 4 ) of the Order .

The present-day Grand Master ('Master Director') of the French Lodge ( the "Main" Lodge of the O*M*CC) is Remi Boyer and the "Master Director" of the Mother Lodge in the U.S.A. is Alberto LaCava. His predecessor was Ronald Capello, who now leads the American branch of the "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique".

The O*M*CC maintains fraternal relations with organizations who "perpetuate the

Alchemical and Hermetic tradition of the Ancient Rose+Croix". The current "Master Director" of France, Remi Boyer, was also the founder of the "Arc-en Ciel" (1988) and its successor "Groupe de Thèbes" / "Cercle d'Alexandrie" (1990), an international Federation of Initiatic Orders and Societies based on the "success" of the F.U.D.O.S.I. The French branch of the O*M*CC was a member of this federation under the name of "ORDRE MARTINISTE DES PAUVRES CHEVALIERS DU CHRIST". The O*M*CC offer two approaches, the Mystical (Ordre Martiniste) and the Theurgical (Ordre des Elus Cohen).

The explanation of the 4 Degrees according to the +OMCC+

The Associates: They are integrated into the Egregore of the Secret Chain
through seeing, listening and speaking.

The Initiates: Sustained and protected by the Egregore of the Secret
Chain, they travel the Initiatic Way for their personal Reintegration. They

The Superior Unknowns: As Guardians of the Martinist Tradition, they
deepen the Way (we give this word the same meaning as the sense of the
word, "Tao"). By their effective works, and their research, they prepare
themselves for the transmission of this traditional heritage.

The Free Initiators; Few in number, they are in charge of the seekers for initiation. They
transmit these initiations freely, and it is their sole responsibility to
initiate those who are duly prepared. They make officers of the members in
the Order, and they conduct the ritualistic works.


Lines of succession of the +OMCC+

The Order has 3 parallel lines of succession, this is the Russian branch ;


Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin, 1780.

Prince Kourakine, diplomat in France.

Nicolas Novikov, writer and publisher, and one of the principals
responsible for French Masonry and the Rose+Croix in Russia.

Gamaleï, poet and translator (i.a.of Boehme) .


Arsenyev (missing on listing as published by O*M*CC)

Pierre Kasnatchéëv, 'appointed General Delegate for Russia by Supreme Council, 1911

Serge Marcotoune, lawyer, mystical name :Master Hermius (or 'Hermes'), 1930.

Armand Toussaint, mystical name: Master Raymond Panagion, Grand
Master of the Order and Patriarch of the Apostolic Rosicrucian Church until
his death in 1994.

Triantaphyllos Kotzamanis (Sar Hieronymus)

Sar Dionysus

Besides the Russian branch, the O*M*CC is equally the depository of the
affiliation with Papus, and of the Russian Martinist affiliation of Robert
Ambelain (

Apparently there's a branch of the O*M*CC active in one of the Spanish speaking countries, its known under the name of :

Martinista de los Caballeros de Cristo

No further information available, except that this branch of the O*M*CC is affiliated to Dr.Lewis Keizer's +M*O*T+ / T:.H:.G:. (source: Marcel Roggemans, Belgium)

Lamen "Vesica Pisces"+OMCC+

"Loge Mere des Chevaliers des Verses"


Nicolai Ivanovitch Novikov ('Colovion', 1744/05/08 - 1818/08/12,"new style" ), Prince Nikolai Troebeskoi ("Eques ab Aquila Boreali) and Peter Tatisjev (Eques a Signo Triumphante) founded in 1784 several Rosicrucian Lodges next to the existing Masonic lodges. The ties between the Moscovite freemasons and the German Rosicrucians ("Gold und Rosenkreutzer") were established around 1781-'82, when the Moscovite professor of philosophy and literature, I.E.Schwartz, returned from a visit to Germany. Schwartz was a fervent defender of the Rosicrucian movement and had a thorough knowledge of the works of Boehme and LC de Saint-Martin. In July, 1782 Schwartz had attended a Masonic Convention in Wilhelmsbad held by the Duke of Braunschweig, Grand Master of the Rite of Strict Observance. He also obtained from the German Rosicrucians the authority to promote the Order in Russia.

Schwartz had begun to work with Novikov at the end of the 1770's. Their collaboration resulted i.a. in a 'printing company' which published Rosicrucian and Masonic books. The Moscovite Rosicrucians were known as "Novikov & Company".

Author Richard Pipes, who wrote several books on Russian history, on this period of Russian history ;

"The activities of the Moscow Free Masons had a twofold character : religious and educational. In common with Free Masons of other countries, they performed symbolic rites, and engaged in the reading and discussion of mystic literature, especially the works of Saint Martin ( for which reason they were commonly know as Martinists ). They also launched an ambitious publishing program, whose aim was to raise the moral and intellectual standards of the country by means of morally uplifting literature. The educational work was directed by Novikov, who in 1779 obtained a ten-year contract to do the printing for the Moscow University."

In 1787 Catherina II prohibited the publication of theosophical books, and in 1789 she made it impossible for Novikov to print at the University Press and finally in 1791 Novikov's printing company was closed. Nevertheless, during a relatively short period the Rosicrucian/Martinists had succeeded in publishing a lot of material.

In 1792 (April 24) Catherina II started a lawsuit against the rosicrucians. On May 17, 1792 Novikov and others were arrested and condemned to imprisonment. Prince Kourakine was sent in exile. When Catherina II died (November 6, 1796) Novikov's detention was abolished by the new king Paul I. Although an attempt was made by the new rulers to allow mysticism even at the court, Novikov and his circle would never fully recover to its former glory. Although Novikov was released by Emperor Paul I ( who was a Grand Master of the Maltese Order ) in 1796, he was forbidden to resume his journalistic activities. The restrictions on Masonry, Rosicrucianism, and Martinism had its cause in political matters. The forthcoming campaign of Napoleon de Bonaparte against Russia would not improve the situation of the Esoteric Freemasons in Russia.

"The isolated existence of Novikov when he retired from social life and that of Gamaleya who lived with him in almost complete isolation after Novikov's imprisonment might be symbolic for the end of that period. It is not by chance that the old generation of Rosicrucians did not participate in the Freemasonic movement of the time" ( Vyacheslav Vs Ivanov "Russia & Gnosis" )

After Novikov's arrest in 1792, Novikov's followers, who are also known as the "Theorists", were forced to operate in small groups meeting each other at secret gatherings. In the early 1810's, Novikov and Gamaleya started working on the compilation of a collection which would be known as the "Bibliotheca Hermetica", a collection in which the Order's spiritual legacy is preserved.

Their followers, under the name of "Theorists", remained active during the entire 19th century, allthough in small numbers.

As mentioned in the beginning, Novikov and several others started to found some Rosicrucian lodges around 1784. The traditions of these Masonic-Rosicrucian Lodges included "the practice of Christian virtues and self- improvement, philanthropy, Christian mysticism, and opposition to atheism, materialism, and revolutionary tendencies". In 1788 a lodge in Moscow was established, others would follow. Within 30 years there were lodges established all over Russia, including Siberia ; St.Petersburg (1802, a stronghold of Rosicrucian/Martinist activities in Russia), Orel, Simbirsk, Mohilef, Wologda, Jaroslaf, and Tchernigov (1920). In 1822, under the reign of Alexander I, Freemasonry was banned.

Gamalei, Posdeév and Arsenyev were initiated by Novikov on December 12, 1796 in Lodge ‘Saint Jean l’apôtre’ , a lodge founded by Novikov in 1791. Arsenyev (probably son or grandson of …1) initiated Pierre Kaznatcheév , who was appointed delegate of the Supreme Council for Russia in 1911. Pierre M. Kaznatcheév, who was the leader of the Martinist Lodges in Moscow (‘Saint Jean l’apôtre’) and Vladimir, met V.S. Arsenyev in 1905, a "Theorist ", follower of Novikov. Kaznatcheév , who did not belong to the Masonic Order, discovered that his ' Martinist views' were very close to the views of Novikov's followers, the "Theosophists ". Kaznatcheév orientated his Martinist Lodges "to objectives similar to those of the Moscow "Theorists" ( A.I.Serkov, "a History of Masonic collections in Russia" ). Several sources (i.a. Ambelain) claim that Kaznatcheév was initiated in the 'Theoretical Degree" of the German "Orden der Gold und Rosenkreutzer", Golden Rosicrucians. The degree concerned was called "Theoreticus" 2=8, and it is a fact that I.E.Schwartz had obtained the authority to promote the German Masonic "Orden der Gold und Rosenkreutzer" in Russia at the end of the 18th century. The question is "what is actually the Russian Theoretical degree?". I have found a reference to the Russian ' Theoretical degree" in a paper written by A.I Serkov who refers to this "degree" as a Masonic Rite, quote:

"V.D.Kamynin, Secretary of the "THEORETICAL DEGREE" of Freemasons"

The "Theoretical Degree" most likely refered to the "Theorists", the followers of Novikov. Novikov had blended various teachings (LC de Saint-Martin, Boehme, de Pasqually, Gold und Rosenkreutzer, Esoteric Christianity) into a masonic rite, which is considered today to be the source of what we call "Russian Martinism". The initiation Kaznatcheév received from Arsenyev, was probably an initiation into the rite of the"Theorists" from Moscow, the Masonic "Theoretical Degree ", or in full, "The Theoretical Degree of Freemasons ".

Kaznatcheév was the leader of lodge "Saint Jean l’apôtre". The Moscow lodge was one of the main lodges in Russia, and many candidates received their initiations, among which Ouspensky (pupil of Gurdieff) and Bely, a friend of Rudolf Steiner.

Another famous Russian Martinist lodge was Lodge "Appolonius" in St.Petersburg. Later renamed in Chapter "Emesch Pentagrammaton" it continued until (at least) 1927. In Kiev there existed, as mentioned in the beginning of this text, lodge "Saint Andre", lead by Serge Marcotoune who had received his initiation by Kaznatcheév.

There was also a Martinist lodge working at the Russian court of the Tzar, lodge "La Croix et l'Etoile" ("Cross and Star") lead by Nicolas Nicolaevitch. Among its members were members of the Romanoff family.

Russian Martinism as we know it today, is a blend of the original Masonic "Rosicrucian" movement of Novikov, with Papus' "Ordre Martiniste". The two "compatible" movements 'blended' when Kaznatcheév orientated his Martinist Lodges "to objectives similar to those of the Moscow "Theorists" around 1905.

1) the initiator of Kaznatcheév was Arsenyev. Novikov had initiated Arsenyev in 1796, this was probably the (grand-)father of Kaznatcheév's initiator, who's name was probably V.S.Arsenyev. At least 3 or 4 generations of the Arsenyav family were involved in Masonic activities and in the 19th century a substantial part of the Moscow "Theorist" collection were "guarded" by the Arsenyev's.

The Arseniev's ; S.N.Arsenyev, V.S.Arsenyev, I.V. (Ioann) Arsenyev, and M.J.Arsenyev.


1975-1980 Hermetic Order of Martinists (U.K.)

( Masonic branches in England )

Apparently this Hermetic Martinist Order was founded somewhere between 1975 and 1980* in the United Kingdom by a member of the "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique" of England, a mr. Bourke.The Hermetic Order of Martinists is accessible only to Freemasons of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (S.R.I.A., founded in 1867 by Robert Wentworth Little. The HO*M* is a purely Masonic branch," found mainly in English speaking countries and with a similar direct initiatic link ".

The H.O*M* does not initiate women. Their lessons are taken from the teachings of the "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique".

No further information is available on this Masonic Martinist branch.

The majority of known English Martinists carry a lineage descending from Victor Blanchard ("Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique"). There's another ' active' Masonic Martinist branch working in England at the moment which filiation is derived from Papus and Bricaud, through Rene Chambellant and the "Ordre Martiniste S.I.", this English variety is known as the "Martinist Order of Unknown Philosophers".The M*O*U.P. started in 1998 as the English branch of the "Ordre Martiniste S.I.", headed by Marc Jones. In the beginning 1999 the English branch became independent because they choose to work in the Masonic Tradition. Marc Jones could not accept the decision of the English branch and suggested the separation from the O*M*S.I., this concerned both the O.M.S.I. as well as the "Order of Knight Masons Elect Kohen of the Universe".

The M*O*U.P. is lead by Michael N.Buckley (Grand Master), John Paternoster (Deputy Grand Master) and John Morgan (Grand Chancellor) . They work in close relationship with the HO*M*.

In 1998 three Chapters were functioning :

Chapter No. 1 the "MEDWAY CHAPTER" is seated in Kent and headed by John MANNOCK.

Chapter No. 2 "ENITEO CHAPTER" is seated in Kent and headed by Robert John TILDESLEY.

Chapter No. 3 "MELCHIZEDEK CHAPTER" is seated in Sydenham, London.

* some sources specifically claim that the H.O*M* was founded in 1975


1977 De Martinisten Orde der Nederlanden in België / O*M* des Pay-Bas in Belgium

The order started with two Martinist circles which originally belonged to the "Ordre Martiniste Belge" which was headed by Gustave-Lambert Brahy.

The two study-groups concerned were group "Stanislas de Guaïta", headed by Stéphane Beuze ( Imhotep ) and group "Appolonius de Tyana", headed by Jean Elisabeth de Penthière ( Jean ). All members originally belonged to Brahy's O*M* de Belge.

The O*M* de Belge consisted of two groups :

"Jacob Boehme" , lead by Beuze (Imhotep)

"Papus" , lead by de Penthière (Jean)

"Jacob Boehme" was closed down on December 22, 1976 by Beuze which was affirmed by Brahy on December 23, 1976. On January 1, 1977 there was a reorganization which resulted in the establishment of three groups :

Group "Papus" which was accessible to members of the 1st Degree. It was headed by Nicolas Leruitte (Fides). The 2nd group, "Jacob Boehme" was accessible to members of the 2nd- and 3rd Degree, and was lead by Jean Barrero (Iohanan). The third group worked with S.I. and S.I.IV and was lead by François Bruynincx ( Andreus ), Brahy and de Penthière. The Order installed a Sovereign National Council with Bruynincx, Brahy, Beuze, etc. as members.

On August 3, 1977 Beuze (Imhotep) and de Penthière (Jean) left the group of Brahy (Eleusis) and joined with Maurice Warnon (Artifex), Grand Master of the "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas. The schism was officially proclaimed on August 10, 1977, the "official" birth of the "Martinisten Orde der Nederlanden in Belgie" / "Martinist Order of the Netherlands in Belgium".

The group "Stanislas de Guaïta" from Brussels was headed by Imhotep, Akénaton, Mikaël and Mikhaël. The O*M* des Pays-Bas in Belgium was lead until her death by by Jean Elisabeth de Penthière ( Jean ). After she died two new circles were established. In 1981 group "Jacob Boehme" in Gent was founded under the authority of Mikaël. In 1988 group "Jean Trithème" in Charleroi was founded under the authority of Basileus. Mikaël was chosen as National Delegate of the order.

Finally, in 1989 the Belgian branch of the O*M* des Pays-Bas separated from Warnon's Dutch Martinist Order. This schism resulted in the foundation of the "L’Ordre Martiniste Hermétique en Belgique" in 1989.


1980 Ordre des Chevaliers Martinistes O*CM*

The "Order of the Martinist Knights" was founded by Pierre Crimetz in Paris in 1980. The establishment of the O*CM* was in fact the result of a schism within a Heptad of the French branch of the "Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel", O*M*T / TM*O* , l'Heptade "Abbé de la Noue". The Heptad "Abbé de la Noue" was lead until 1974 by Jean Dubuis. Under his charismatic leadership this Heptad specialized in classes of the traditional Hermetic Arts, supplemented with studies on the Sefer Zohar, or "Book of Splendours", a Kabbalistic work which eloborates and interprets the verses of scripture from the Torah. The Heptad "Abbé de la Noue" included a special class for the study and practise of Occultism within its structure, which was known as the "2ème Cercle " (the 2nd Circle). Because of the "occult activities" the relationship with A.M.O.R.C., to whom the O*M*T is closely connected, degraded rather quickly. The whole history has already been told in the Chapter on the "Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel - Traditional Martinist Order", under the header of "AMORC's TMO in France - de L'Heptade "Abbé de la Noue".

In 1974, Raymond Bernard, Grand Master of AMORC/TMO of France at the time, replaced Jean Dubuis by Pierre Crimetz. Crimetz had been intiated into Martinism by Bernard in 1966.

Later Crimetz was given the responsibility for the French branch of the "Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel". In 1980 Pierre Crimetz decided to found his own order, the "Ordre des Chevaliers Martinistes". The establishment of Crimetz' O*CM* caused a sensation at the time. A declaration was written by Raymond Bernard which was addressed to the various Heptads in France ;

" It is my duty to inform you that our dear Brother, Pierre Crimetz, has stopped his activities and has given up his leading position within the ' Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel ', to continue his work elsewhere and in a different manner within the service of the Tradition"

Apparently Crimetz' O*CM* also included occultism in its curriculum. The Occult teachings of the order consisted of writings and works and of the knowledge of members of the "2ème Cercle " (the 2nd Circle) who followed Pierre Crimetz when he founded the order in 1980. This information is derived from a French website on the history of the Heptad "Abbé de la Noue" and I have no information regarding its "reliability" as a source. According to the same source ("Secrets & Societes - De l’heptade « Abbé de la Noue » aux Philosophes de la Nature") the order changed its name twice since its establishment in 1980 ;

"Ordre des Chevaliers Martinistes" , changed its name in …

"Collège des Chevaliers Martinistes" , and finally

"Collège du Temple de l’Homme"

According to this source Crimetz' order is known today as the Collège du Temple de l’Homme. On a present-day French site,"Sociétés Secrètes et les sectes", the order is (still) listed as "Ordre des Chevaliers Martinistes"

1982 Rose†Croix Martinist Order ( Ontario, Canada )

Founded in 1982 in Ontario, Canada, under the leadership of Mike Revisto (Sar Ignatius). Mike Revisto is a former member of the Canadian branch of the "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique". Revisto had received the S.I.I and S.I.IV Degree, the latter being connected to the traditional degree of Initiatèur Libre, which enabled him to found the Rose†Croix Martinist Order (RCM*O*).

Revisto, Sar Ignatius, had received his initiations from Peter Maydan, Sar Petrus. In 1975 Maydan also intiated Revisto into the "Ordre Martiniste de Paris", headed by Dr.Philippe Encausse.

Mike Revisto (Sar Ignatius) carries a Lineage which descends from Maitre Philippe and a Lineage which descends from Papus-Chaboseau ;

The line of succession of Philippe Nizier (Maître Philippe )

Philippe Nizier (1849-1905)

Jean Chapas (disciple of Maître Philippe )

Michel de Saint-Martin

Peter Maydan (Sar Petrus)

Mike Revisto (Sar Ignatius)

The "Papus Chaboseau- lineage" includes George de Lagrèze and Sar Gulion (see "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique"). Sar Ignatius' order is a Martinist Order in 3+1 Degrees

1st degree ; ASSOCIATE

2nd degree; INITIATE

3rd degree ; UNKNOWN SUPERIOR / S::I::

4th degree ; UNKNOWN PHILOSOPHER / S::I::I:: , which is compatible with the degree of "Unknown Philosopher" of the "Ordre Martinite et Synarchique".

The 4th degree is the 'Administrative' degree. This degree does not contain any teachings and is mostly awarded to a Martinist that wants to start a Heptad. The 4th degree includes an initiation-ritual. The so-called "Free Initiator S:::I:::IV" is also an "Administrative-degree" which is awarded to the Grand-Officers of the Order and to the Grand Master.

The "Free Initiator" is competent to initiate a 3rd degree Martinist (S.I.) into the 4th degree (S.I.I ), but he is not competent to initiate a Martinist as a "Free Initiator S.I.IV". The Martinist S.I.I has no competency to initiate another Martinist into this degree. The idea of "Free Initiator" descends from the "Free Martinists" at the time of Téder ( Charles Détré ), when the latter decided only to initiate Master Masons into the Martinist Order. Many original Martinists left the order and "united' as the so-called 'Free French Martinists'.

The degree of S::I::IV descends from the "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique" . The S::I::IV was connected to the traditional degree of 'Initiatèur Libre'.

A Martinist who has the degree of 'Initiatèur Libre', I::L::, is officially authorized to found a Martinist organization. The Martinist I::L:: is authorized to transfer "all" of the Martinist Degrees, including the degree of 'Unknown Philosopher' - ' Philosophe Inconnu'. The I::L:: is even authorized to transfer these degrees outside of a lodge, without the ritual of Initiation. Most of the Martinist Orders abolished the degree of I::L:: , 'Initiatèur Libre', for obvious reasons. The "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique" is an exception, the 'Initiatèur Libre' forms part of their 'system of degrees'.

The I::L:: as well as the S::I::IV are transferred 'Ad Vitam' ( for life ).

The Rose†Croix Martinist Order emphasizes the Christian-Mystical approach of

Martinism, as advocated by the writings of LC de Saint-Martin. As Mike Revisto explains ; " The Rose†Croix Martinist Order, alone among Martinism, represents a return to the pure Christian Mystical tradition suggested by Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin ".

The RCM*O* offers a Martinist 'Home Correspondence Course', something that was (and is) considered unacceptable by many of the 'orthodox' Martinist bodies ( a method 'popularized' by AMORC's TM*O*). Mike Revisto explains ;

"Traditionally, one studied within a Martinist group such as a Heptad (Septum) or Lodge and received personal instruction. For years, one popular mystery school offered the Martinist Lessons by mail. Also the Initiations were sent by mail, to be performed by the member. These self-Initiations were not recognized by orthodox Martinist bodies, and as a result, the whole home study section was considered unacceptable to purists. There was and is nothing intrinsically wrong with studying the Martinist lessons by correspondence. The Initiations were and are a problem, for those unable to travel to receive them".

The Rose†Croix Martinist Order offers a correspondence-course of the Three Martinist Degrees, exclusive of the Initiation into the 3th degree, S::I:: . The S::I:: Initiation must be received in person.

'Initiatèur Libre' Certificate S:::I:::IV, Sar Ignatius. April 18, 1978

Initiator ; Sar Petrus (Peter Maydan, Sovereign Grand Master OM&S)


1989 Ordre Martiniste Hermétique de Belgique O*M*H

In 1989 the Belgian branch of the O*M* des Pays-Bas separated from Warnon's Dutch Martinist Order, "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas". This schism resulted in the foundation of the "L’Ordre Martiniste Hermétique de Belgique" in 1989.

During the 1980's the O*M* des Pay-Bas en Belgique thrived on the efforts of just one lodge, Lodge "Stanislas de Guaita", lead by four Martinists ; Mikaël, Mikhaël, Basileus and Maât. In 1988 Mikaël became the 'National Delegate', 'Délégué National, of the O*M* des Pays-Bas en Belgique'.

After a dispute with the Warnon-family (Maurice Warnon, GM of the Dutch Martinist Order) Mikaël and several other Belgian Martinists left the order and founded the "Ordre Martiniste Hermétique". At the end of the 1990's the O*M*H had three lodges in Belgium. The Order represents several rites of which the organization carries several 'Lines of Succession'. The O*M*H confer the following Martinist Degrees ;





Their Martinist Lineage descends from Gustave Lambert Brahy, Maurice Warnon, Mikaël and Basileus. The O*M*H has its origin in the O*M* Belge (founded 1968) and the O*M* des Pays-Bas (1975).

Besides the traditional 'Martinist Doctrine' of LC de Saint-Martin, several other rites are centralized within the body of the O*M*H ;

Stricte Observance Templière

Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose-Croix

Ordre des Elus-cohen

The O*M*H also carries a succession of the Gnostic church of the "Eglise Gnostique Apostolique" (E.G.A.).

‘Grand Prieuré Martiniste de Belgique’.

The 'Stricte Observance' is the oldest 'Esoteric-Masonic Rite' we know.

Founded by German Karl Gotthelf baron von Hund ( Carolus Eques ab Ense )( 1722 -1766 ) around 1750. The first documents of von Hund's Masonic Templar rite dates from 1755. The French branch transformed into the CBCS, ‘Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte’ , under the leadership of Jean-Baptiste Willermoz.

This happened in Lyon in 1778. Willermoz integrated the philosophy of Martinez de Pasqually with the rite of von Hund into the R.E.R., Rite Ecossais Rectifié, the Rectified Scottish Rite.

The 'Rectifies Scottish Rite' is a rite of 4 degrees ;

Apprenti, Compagnon, Maître and Maître Ecossais de Saint-André.

The R.E.R. is strongly influenced by Martinism and includes De Pasqually's 'Elus Cohen'.

The "Knights Beneficent of the Holy City" , C.B.C.S. has 4 degrees ;

écuyer novice, CBCS ( chevalier bienfaisant de la cité sainte ), Profès and Grand Profès. The combined rites are united in the ‘Grand Prieuré Martiniste de Belgique’.

The O*M*H carries several lineages of the "Stricte Observance Templière" -

' 1st lineage', descending from the 'CBCS',‘Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte’ ;

Camille Savoire ( Eques a Fortitudine ) - Georges Bogé de Lagrèze ( Eques Rosae caritatis ) - Robert Ambelain ( Eques a Reconciliatione ) - André Mauer ( Eques Serviens ) - Joël Duez ( Eques a Lucidis Scalis ) - Basileus ( Eques Iohannès a Luce in Tenebris Lucente ) - Mikaël (Eques Garmanus ab Aquila Dei )

' 2nd lineage, descending from the ' Stricte Observance Templière ' ;

Baron van Anckercreutz ( Salomon du Grand Chapitre + ) - Robert Ambelain - André Mauer - Joël Duez - Basileus - Mikaël


' 3th lineage' , descending from the ’Ordre du Chardon d’Ecosse' * ;

John Yarker - Georges Bogé de Lagrèze - Robert Ambelain - André Mauer - Joël Duez - Basileus - Mikaël


* The Scottish "Order of the Thistle" (the heretical or the 'English' one?)

' 4th lineage' , descending from Bernard Raymond Fabré Palaprat de Spolète : Platounoff - Armand Toussaint - Arbatel ( eques a Leone Dei ) - Basileus - Mikaël

Robert Ambelain

When Robert Ambelain left the "Ordre Martiniste de Paris" and dissolved the "Ordre des Elus Cohen", he founded the "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique" ; a Martinist order established within the bosom of the "Rite Ancien et Primitif de Memphis-Misraim". The O*M*I was based on a Russian filiation from LC de Saint-Martin (Novikov). Ambelain was Grand Master of the Memphis-Misraim rite, and was succeeded by Gérard Kloppel in 1984.

The "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique" had a lodge in Brussels, Belgium ; ‘La Loge Souveraine Martinésiste du Septentrion ( Loge Martinez de Pasqually )’ , under the authority of F::: Umabel (Marcel Jirousek ?)

The O*M* Hérmetique carries a lineage from Ambelain's O*M*Initiatique ;

Robert Ambelain ( Aurifer ) - Gérard Kloppel ( Signifer ) - Umabel - Joël Duez ( Iacobus ) - Basileus and Mikaël.


Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix

The OKR+C is included within the organization of the O*M*H. The OKR+C Filiation descends from Georges Bogé de Lagrèze ;

Georges Bogé de Lagrèze ( Eques Rosae Caritatis ) - Robert Ambelain ( Eques a Reconciliatone, Aurifer ) - André Mauer ( Eques Serviens, Urim ) - Joël Duez ( Eques a Lucidis scalis, Iacobus ) - Basileus ( Eques Iohannès a luce in tenebris lucente ) - Mikaël ( Eques Germanus ab aquila dei ).

The original OKR+C of Stanislas de Guaita did not confer any degrees but maintained a system of examinations of which each examination was granted with a diploma.

The order had three 'degrees' ; bachelier (bachelor), licencié (master) and docteur en Kabale (doctor of Kabalah). Robert Ambelain 'revalued' the OKR+C diplomas into 4 Degrees, the so called "Rose-Croix" degrees. The "Rose-Croix" degrees Ambelain used descended from different traditions ;

1° le S.I.I. - Martinist

2° de RC de Kilwinning - Scottish Masonry

3° le Réau-Croix - Elus Cohen

4° la RC d'Oriënt - from Lagreze's R+C Order. Lagreze was initiated into the ' RC d'Orient' by Dimitri-Semelas-Deon .

The "Rose-Croix" degrees act as a portal to the "Ordres des Chevaliers EASIA-EASIE", ‘Eques A Santo Iohanne Apostolo - Eques A Sancto Iohanne Evangelista’ (see "1942 Rose-Croix d'Orient" ).

Ordre des Elus Cohen

The 'Elus Cohen' is included within the O*M*H. The filiation descends from Bricaud ;

Jean Bricaud - Georges Bogé de Lagrèze - Robert Ambelain - André Mauer - Joël Duez - Basileus - Mikaël.

Eglise gnostique apostolique (E.G.A.)

The E.G.A. filiation descends from Giraud, who carried the lineage of Joseph René Vilatte (1854-1929). This branch was recognized by the Catholic Church ( see "1890 E.G.A." ) ;

Prêtrise et épiscopat de la Filiation Syro-Jacobite d’Antioche :

Louis-Marie-François Giraud - Jean Bricaud ( Tau Jean II ) - Victor Blanchard ( Tau Targelius ) - Roger Ménard ( Tau Eon II ) - Robert Ambelain (Tau Jean III ) - André Mauer ( Tau Andreas ) - Joël Duez ( Tau Iacobus ) - Tau Basileus - Tau Mikaël .

This branch also includes several other lineages, like the Syrian Jacobite Orthodox Church - Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church, the Chaldean Syrian Church, the Orthodox Coptic Church, the Old Catholic Church of Utrecht etc.

The Orderstructure is divided into two ' sections', called "Premier-" and "Second Temple", or "Exterior-" and "Interior Order" ;


Premier Temple

Ordre Extérieur

Filiation Filiation Filiation

Martinist Chevaleresque et Eglise Gnostique Martineziste

Templière - S.O.T. Apostolique

Philosophical - Grand Prieuré Sacerdotal Operative Way-


Or Mystical way Martiniste Theurgical -

Of De Pasqually


















Second Temple

Ordre Intérieur




De la






( Grand Elu de

Zorobabel 1 ) COMMANDEUR


Grand Elu

Zorobabel 2


3° REAU-CROIX Accès CH.: de R::+::S::J::


4° R.C. d’ORIENT

Note : The information regarding the O*M* Hermetique de Belgique descends from the order itself and is therefore 'biased' with regard to the events which lead to the schism with the O*M* des Pays-Bas…


a Special Thanks to all members of the Martinist-E-Group for their contributions and to Bro. Glenn Holcomb from whom I've received a copy of Blitz' "Ritual and Monitor of The Martinist Order", Fanx a Lot, Glenn !

Milko c) 2001

1990 Traditional Martinist Order of the U.S.A. Inc.

The TM*O* of the USA Inc. was established in 1990. According to mr.Silvani Costa the order was already established in 1989. Whatever the year was,The TM*O*A was 'officially' constituted after the deposition of Gary Lee Stewart as Grand Master of A.M.O.R.C. in 1990 . Gary L.Stewart was the successor of Ralph Maxwell Lewis, who also had initiated Stewart into the TM*O*. Strangely enough the ' Board of Directors' of A.M.O.R.C. failed to remember to remove Stewart from the office of Sovereign Grand Master of the TM*O* ! The TM*O* was 'officially' still headed by Stewart. Therefore Stewart 'activated' the TM*O*A, which was the ' legal heir' of AMORC's "Traditional Martinist Order". Gary L..Stewart also received the "all-important 4th Degree of Initiator" from Cecil Poole, who received this degree himself directly from Victor Blanchard of the O*M* &S. Apparently, the documentation of Stewart's initiation to the 4th Degree was taken to Paris, along with other TM*O* material by Christian Bernard, president of A.M.O.R.C. the TM*O*A descends from the original "Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel" which was founded in 1931 by French Martinists Michelet, Chaboseau and Chamuel. After the "AMORC vs Gary L.Stewart" affair Stewart left AMORC and installed Maltimore Smith as Grand Master of the TM*O*A, with Stewart himself acting as Deputy Grand Master. Referring to an interview with Gary L.Stewart on December 12, 1998, with Marcel Roggemans, Stewart states that meanwhile the TM*O* of the U.S.A.Inc. is officially dissolved.The ' Line of Succession' of the "Traditional Martinist Order of the U.S.A. Inc." ;

Ralph Maxwell Lewis

Cecil T.Poole

Gary L.Stewart

Maltimore Smith


1991 British Martinist Order BM*O*

The "British Martinist Order" was founded in October, 1991. Gary Lee Stewart is the

' Spiritual' Grand Master, properly speaking. But the BM*O* was actually founded on October 13, 1991 in the "Templar Chapel" at Rothly, England, by Grand Master John A.B. Fox, a former member of the TM*O* and A.M.O.R.C.

The BM*O* established centres in Manchester, Leicester, Coventry, Swansea and London in England, Edinburgh in Scotland, Trinidad and Tobago in the West-Indies, in the provence of New South Wales in Australia, in Singapore, Africa (unknown where precisely, possibly Ghana) and in Norway. Apparently, the BM*O* is in the process of establishing several centres in the U.S.A. at the moment.

According to the BM*O* their Martinist ceremonies are based on the Kabalah (which, strictly speaking, also counts for the other Martinist groups).

The BM*O* works with ' three sections or degrees', the classic three Martinist degrees. " The smallest BMO group is an Associate Circle which can operate with three or more BMO members. A group must be active for at least nine months as an Associate Circle before they can apply for Lodge status.

A Lodge must have ten (10) 3rd Degree members before it can apply for a Lodge Charter" , thus the BM*O*.

The BM*O* claims to have a Martinist filiation which descends from Russia, through the ' Golitzin Family'.

"Shortly afterwards he (LC de SM) became fully involved with a mystic stream or Tradition that had included such names as Court de Gebelin, Benjamin Franklin the American statesman and the English Nobleman, Sir Francis Dashwood. He travelled widely and following an invitation from the Golitzin* family in Russia he went there and was Initiated ( ???) into the Lineage that now runs through the British Martinist Order", thus the BM*O*. The ' Line of Succession' of the BM*O* ;

Ralph Maxwell Lewis

Cecil T.Poole

Gary L.Stewart

John A.B. Fox


'Golitzin' ; could this be ' Prince Alexander Galitzine' ? The BM*O* won't say, it is considered "a secret" only available to members of the order ; "With reference to your recent enquiry, details about the Golitzen and BMO connection are only available to members of the BMO. As far as our history is concerned, this is already taken care of by a full time historian", Regards, Administrator/British Martinist Order ; thus the BM*O*…


Rose+Croix Martinist Order ( Colorado, U.S.A. )


The R+CM*O* was founded by Basileus and Trophimus. The President of the Order is Trothimus. In 1982 both were members of the "American Supreme Counsil of the Martinist Order and Synarchy". The American Supreme Counsil was lead by Sar Benedictus who received his initiation by Sar Gullion - Grand Master of Great-Britain - in 1989. Both Benedictus and Trophimus set up a petition in which the British Grand Lodge of the O*M* &S was asked to create an Independent American branch of the Martinist Order and Synarchy. But Trophimus (and Basileus) would leave the order soon because of difficulties between the O*M* &S and Freemasonry. Trophimus in his book "A Martinist Treasury" :

"The founders of the Rose+Croix Martinists, Basileus and Trophimus, were originally members of a Martinist movement affiliated with the Universal Gnostic Church and with clandestine (spurious) Freemasonry. Since many Martinists are active in their own churches and since many male Martinists are members of "regular" (recognized) Masonic bodies, these persons often find themselves in difficult situations, having to reconcile themselves, somehow, to the "official" Martinist Church and to the conferring of illegal "masonic" degrees".

Therefore they decided to leave the O*M* &S. After they left they contacted "the Grand Master of a regular and duly Chartered European Martinist body whose See is at Amsterdam. The Grand Master of this regular and legitimate Martinist body, conferred the complete Initiation (that of ' Associate' , ' Initiate' , ' S.I.' , and ' S.I.I.') on Trophimus and Basileus" thus "A Martinist Treasury".

The Grand Master concerned of the legitimate European Martinists was Maurice Warnon of the "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas", the Dutch Martinist Order . then, in 1991, Trophimus and Basileus founded the "Rose+Croix Martinist Order" of America "which offers traditional Martinism without Masonic activity (clandenstine or otherwise) or official church affiliation".

The R+CM*O* supposedly descends from the O*M* &S on Barbados, West Indies. As stated in the chapter "1918 (1921) Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique" the O*M*&S at Barbados was affiliated to the Gnostic Apostolic Church, E.G.A., Elus Cohen and Willermoz' C.B.C.S. The order at Barbados was chartered by the British Grand Lodge and lead at the time by Sar Savitar. The "International College of Esoteric Studies",ICES - formerly known as the "International College of Martinist Studies", ICOMS- is connected to the order in Barbados.

The R+CM*O 's Line of Filiation descends from Augustin Chaboseau. " Initiates of The Rose+Croix Martinist Order® are directly in the "Chaboseau line", not the Papus line", thus R+CM*O*. Does Trophimus refer to the lineage he and Basileus received from Maurice Warnon from Belgium ?, probably ; Trophimus in "A Martinist Treasury" explains :

"Trophimus and Basileus made contact with the Grand Master of a regular and duly Chartered European Martinist body whose See is at Amsterdam. The Grand Master of this regular and legitimate Martinist body, conferred the complete Initiation (that ofAssociate, Initiate, SI, and SI Initiator) on Trophimus and Basilius".

Martinist affiliation received from Warnon ;

Pierre-Augustin Chaboseau ( Sar Augustinus, 1868-1946 )

Emile Dantinne ( Sar Hieronymus, 1884-1969 )

Emile Ehlers ( 1886? - 1953 )

Gustave-Lambert Brahey ( 1894 - 1988 )

Maurice Warnon

Baron Dr. Lloyd Worley ( Trophimus, 1946 - ) and "Basileus"

The R+CM*O* confers the Initiation by granting all 4 Degrees to "all qualified members" ; ' Associate' , ' Initiate' , ' S.I.' , and ' S.I.I.'. The order functions under a National Council system "as originally planned by Chaboseau and Papus. Thus, The Rose+Croix Martinist Order® has a President, not a Grand Master".

The R+CM*O* is organized in ' circles' which are established all over the United States : California , Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, Utah , Wyoming , Colorado , New Mexico , New Jersey , Maryland , Delaware , Virgina , West Virginia , and Pennsylvania. The R+CM*O* emphasizes the use and practise of "Theurgy" in the order's curriculum although it's not clear which "theurgical system" the R+CM*O* prefers. Apparently Trophimus' colleague in the R+CM*O* was Abbot George Burke, head of the controversial "Gnostic Orthodox Church of America". Abbot George Burke ( Basileus ) published a novel, "The Way of the Chalice", which has been out of print for several years. It is about "Christian Theurgy, and seems to be largely centred on Abbe Julio's teachings (Julien Ernest Houssay , 1844-1912, head of the Liberal Catholic Church * of France, 'Vilatte succession' ) (source ; Elias Ibrahim-Australia ). Therefore it seems rather likely, or better, there is a possiblity that the "Theurgy" of the R+CM*O* is based upon the ' practical occultism' as taught by Abbe Julio, Julien H.Houssay . I emphasize the word "possibility" because nowhere in the novel Martinism or the order is mentioned. But at the end of the book, in the closing word, it is clearly stated to the reader that although the book is fiction, the events are based on facts. It is stated that the novel is an accurate depiction of Christian Theurgy in all its facets. At the end of the "Final Word" of the book, the address of the "Martinist Information Service" is published, in Greedy, Colorado. One is invited to write to this address to receive detailed information on Christian Theurgy… The 'Introduction' is written by "Lloyd Worley, Ph.D., American Literature Division Head

The International Association for the Fantastic in the Arts, Department of English -The University of Northern Colorado ".

According to the R+CM*O* the Theurgy of the RCMO is Christian in nature and "is derived from papers they received " concerning the writings and teachings of St-Martin. The R+CM*O* does not accept the modern-day ' Elus Cohen rituals' because the original rituals vanished with De Pasqually's death." "What passes today as the E-C is Masonic ritual" , thus the order.

In 1991 Trophimus published a succesful book on the Martinist tradition and the history of the separate Martinist organizations - ‘A Martinist Treasury’ - Trophimus S.I.I. 1991 - published by 'The Martinist Information Service' at Greeley, Colorado, U.S.A. Apparently the R+CM*O* is opposed to the A.M.O.R.C. organization. Various chapters of ' A Martinist Treasury' are dedicated to A.M.O.R.C. and the' irregularities' within the T.M.O., the ' schism' within A.M.O.R.C. in 1990 etc.

* * Eglise Catholique Francaise, founded in 1907 in Paris by Joseph Rene Vilatte (1854-1929), the church was inherited from Vilatte by Abbe Julio. Abbe Julio. The Eglise Catholique Francaise is an Occult-Gnostic church. 'Abbe Julio' was a former Catholic Priest an Occultist and ' faith-healer'. He's primary responsible for the occult infusion into the Apostolic succession.. One of his disciples, Giraud, consecrated Jean Bricaud (Tau Jean II ) into the Gallican Church in 1913. Abbe Julio was never a member of the "Ordre Martiniste", "but he had a friendly and deeply sympathetic attitude to Master Phillipe" ( Elias Ibrahim) .

Trophimus; The Rev. Baron Dr. Lloyd Worley

' Brother Trophimus' was born as Lloyd Worley in 1946. Worley holds a Ph.D. from Southern Illinois University and is a full Professor of English at the University of Northern Colorado. He was ordained Priest of the "Liberal Catholic Church" in 1976 and is currently Rector of an active Parish in Greeley, Colorado. Worley is also an active Mason. He was a DeMolay (PMC and ' Chevalier' ) and was Initiated, passed, and Raised in Hope Lodge #145 in Lafayette, Louisiana at age 21. Worley was active as a so-called "DeMolay Dad" in Pennsylvania and Colorado and founded Chapters in those states. He holds the DeMolay Cross of Honor and the active DeMolay Legion of Honor. Worley is also active in the "Blue Lodge" ('regular' Masonry of 3 degrees) and York Rite ( Associate Regent, York Rite Sovereign College ) in Colorado. Worley's ' Blue Lodge' is Century Lodge #190 in Greely, Colorado.

He's also a Grand Master of the "Knights of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem", an Order of Chivalry which was originally founded in 1099. After he initiated several members of the Polish nobility Worley was made a Baron."He is Hereditary Baron of the Noble House of Worley of Christy of the Byzantine Roman Empire". He's famous for an article he wrote for "The Philalethes" ( Masonic Research society ) which exposes anti-Masonic activities of the Lutheran Church of Missouri. After years of Research on Fraternal orders etc. he had collected much anti-Masonic material which he used in the 1986 Philalethes-article. "That article has been used by several Grand Lodges in their educational programs", the Rev. Baron Lloyd Worley - Brother Trophimus.

The Dutch Martinist Order, "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas" however warns against the R+CM*O* and its leader, Brother Trophimus. Apparently Trophimus approached various Martinist orders before he founded his own order. According to the R+CM*O* the order uses ceremonies "derived from the original 1895 and 1916 Order Rituals". Trophimus is using Rituals which he created himself instead of using the original rituals of the (Dutch) Martinist Order. Trophimus received the proper Initiations of the Martinist Order of the Netherlands through its Grand Master, Maurice Warnon but he was expelled from the order because of breach of promise.

Seal of the Rose+Croix Martinist Order


1994 Cadre Vert ( Belgium )

The "Cadre Vert" was established in Brussels, Belgium in 1994. The "Cadre Vert" is part of the structual organization of the ' Ordre Martiniste des Chevaliers du Chirst ’, a Martinist order founded in 1971 by Armand Toussaint ( see Chapter "1971 +O*M*CC+"),

and was established as an extension of the O*M*CC. The "Cadre Vert" was also established in the U.S.A.. It's a confederation of four different Gnostic Bishops representing several esoteric- and occult brotherhoods and societies. Three of them are appointed as "Hierophants".

The orders which are represented within the confederation "Cadre Vert" ;

Martinist Order of the Temple’

Ordre Martiniste des Chevaliers du Christ’


‘Pythagorean Order’


Martinist Order of the Temple +M*O*T+

The M*O*T is connected to the "Temple of the Holy Grail", T:.H:.G:., lead by Dr.Lewis Keizer . The M*O*T makes itself known under the auspices of the T:.H:.G:.

The +M*O*T+ Lineage is almost identical to the O*M*CC Lineage ( see Chapter O*M*CC ). " +M*O*T+ Lineage is via the Russian lineage through the artist Gamalei, Serge Marcotoune, to Armand Toussaint" ( source: E.Ibrahim ). There's also a lineage which descended from John Yarker, which includes several rosicrucian rites.

The "Martinist Order of the Temple" maintains a close fraternal relationship with the French "Martinist Order of the Knights of Christ / Ordre Martiniste des Chevaliers du Christ", O*M*CC, headed by Remi Boyer. Bishop Keizer also maintains a friendly relationship with ICES. He gave permission to ICES for some of the "Disciplina Arcani" material to be included in the ICES Libers. The "Disciplina Arcani" were the introductory stages of the Order amalgated by Richard Duc de Palatine. There was also some collaboration between Keizer and ICES on the form of the Gnostic Mass utilized by the EGA in Barbados.

The M*O*T studies are implemented in the T:.H:.G:. studies. Both streams of Martinist Tradition are taught, the "Philosophical-" and "Operative tradition", the S::I:: and the ' Elus Cohen'. Initiations into the T:.H:.G:. are done once each year "at the exact time of the Wesak Shamballa Full Moon" ('Wesak' -'Buddah's birthday'- is the Full Moon following the Easter-Passover Moon, the 2nd Full Moon after the Vernal Equinox-approx.-).

Lewis Keizer holds a lineage which descended from John Yarker (1833-1913, see Ch. "Memphis-Misraim") ;

John Yarker, 33* 90* 96*

James Heard, 1st 'Vicarius Salomonis' , Conservator of the A.U.Pansophic Masonic Rite

Hugh G. deWilmott

H.S.H. Duc de Palatine (Ronald Powell), founder of the "Order of the Pleroma"-1950's

Count George Boyer

Dr.Lewis Keyzer

The "Ancient Universal Pansophic Masonic Rite" was a rite established at the end of the 19th century by Yarker, to "synthesize" all esoteric European lineages. It is generally known that Yarker was a "collector" of Charters, and like Reuss and Papus after him, it was his dream to unite all the orders, rites etc. of the Western Mystery Tradition with each other. In the 1950's Australian Ronald Powell, aka Richard Duc de Palatine established the Gnostic "Order of the Pleroma". He was a student of HPB's Theosophy and also a member of AMORC for some years. Powell's organizations would eventually evolve in the "Sanctuary of the Gnosis", headed by George Boyer. The ' Sanctuary' represented all the organisations descending from Yarker and various Apostolic successions. These orders and rites (together with all extant Apostolic successions) are today represented by Lewis Keizer's "Temple of the Holy Grail" ;

ILLUMINIST : Fratres Lucis (Brotherhood of the Illuminati), Order of the Illuminati, Order of the Martiniste, LVX (1), Brotherhood of Luxor

TEMPLAR : Order of De Knights of the Holy Ghost, Order of the Knights of St. John, Order of the Knights of Malta, Order of the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, Order of the Temple (Apostolic Succession)

ROSICRUCIAN : Order of the True Rosy Cross, Order of the Ecclesiae Rosicrucianae Catholicae, Hidden Church of the Holy Grail

MASONIC : Ancient and Primitive Rite, Rite of Memphis, Rite of Mizraim, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Swedenborgian Rite of Masonry. Order of the Rose Croix of Hiredom, Order of the Holy Royal Arch of Enoch

The "work" of the orders mentioned above is synthesized in the teachings of the T:.H:.G:.. According to the T:.H:.G:. the authentic teachings are modernized and applied in the context of modern life. "Bishop Keyzer makes a very valid comment that the rituals of many of these lineages are actually liturgies" ( source; E.Ibrahim )

In 1992 George Boyer authorized to Lewis Keizer the authorities of the "Pansophic Rites of Freemasonry". In 1998 Keizer founded as Grand Master of the rite the Lodge of St-Germain, the Grand Lodge of the new Pansophic Freemasonic obedience (Co-Masonic).

Keizer's Martinist affiliation apparently is derived from the French "Ordre Martiniste des Chevaliers du Christ". His memberships and fraternal orders :

Presiding Bishop, International Synod of Home Temple Bishops

Master Mason, F.&A.M. and Venerable Master, Grande Loge Mixte de France (Paris)Master Elus Cohen and S.I. IV, +OMCC+ (France)

Bishop and Vicarius Salomonis for the Pan-Sophic Rites of Freemasonry, +SG+ (London)

Knight Commander for United States, +OMR+ Chivalric (London)

Regionary Head of A:.R:.A:. (Rosicrucian), United States And Others


Notes :

+SG+ = "Sanctuary of the Gnosis" George Boyer

OMR = "Order of St.Michael & Order of St.Raphael"

A:.R:.A:. = presumably derived from Krumm-Heller's F:.R:.A:., "Fraternitas Rosicruciana Antiqua . In the 'Pansophic Masonic Rite" of Keizer there's a reference to the "Rosicrucian FRA (ARA) studies", FRA -Fraternity Rosicruciana Antiqua ??


1996 (?) Ordre Martiniste S:::I::: / O*M* de Luxembourg

The "Ordre Martiniste S::I:: " is based on filiations from Philippe Encausse ('Ordre Martiniste de Papus'), Pierre Rispal ('Ordre Martiniste Libre'), Joanny Bricaud and Constant Chevillon (via René Chambellant and Gilbert Tappa).

The information I have on the O*M*SI is collected from articles, correspondences etc. and is somewhat 'unreliable', there is no published material available on the history of this order. One exception is the 'filiation of the O*M*SI' . The information was sent to me by e-mail by the Grand Master and President of the Supreme Council, Marc Jones, quote ; "OMSI is an independant Martinist Order based on the filiations I received as SIGI. Pls see annex" ;

The O*M*SI has two parallel 'Lines of Succession' ;

Philippe Encausse

Pierre Rispal

Marc Jones (S::I::IV - August 23, 1989)

Philippe Encausse

François Roque

Gilbert Tappa

Marc Jones (S::I::IV - March 20, 1997)

François Roque and Gilbert Tappa were initiated by Philippe Encausse, S.I / S.I. III - S.I. I / S.I. IV, in 1968 and were appointed respectively President of the group

"Régiment de Foix " (Nice) and "Saint Jean" (Beausoleil).

François Roque received the S::I::G::I:: or SI V ('Initiatèur Libre' ) from Encausse around 1970-1971, and he confered the SI V to François Trojani on August 11 or 12, 1972 , in Nice, and on August 13, 1972, he confered the SI V to Gilbert Tappa, in the presence of Trojani.

The information I received from the O*M*S.I. states that one of the filiations of the order descends from Pierre Rispal from the "Ordre Martiniste Libre". R.A. in his "Encyclopédie de la Franc-Maçonnerie" édition 2000 states that the "Ordre Martiniste Libre" was founded in 1983 after some members had left Philippe Encausse's "Ordre Martiniste", which was lead by Emilio Lorenzo since 1979. According to R.A. a schism occurred in 1996 within the ranks of the "Ordre Martiniste Libre" which resulted in the birth of the "Ordre Martiniste S.I.". Whatever the story is, Pierre Rispal and the O*M*S.I. are still on good terms with each other through "Les Amis de Maître PHILIPPE ", of which Rispal is its president.

The President, Grand Master of the O*M*S.I. is Marc Jones (S.I. , S.I.V) from Luxemburg. Their contact-adress is "Les Compagnons de la Rosée", a.s.b.l. 122, Bd de la Pétrusse
L-2330 LUXEMBOURG. In Luxemburg the O*M*S.I. runs a Martinist Chapter, "La ROSÉE ", which was founded 20 years ago (most likely belonging to another Martinist Order at the time) . Apparently the Chapter emphasizes on the Mysticism of Martinism (as taught by LC de Saint-Martin) and on the Occult school as promoted by Papus (through the G.I.D.E.E.).

The O*M*S.I. is comprised of two circles :

Cercle Extérieur , "The Exterior Circle of Esoteric Studies" which is 'a school of formation' intended for Martinists of the First- and Second Degree, who meet in a "Loge de formation"

Cercle Intérieur , "The Interior Cirle of the S::I::", who meet in "Chapter" and "Grand Chapter". The S::I:: form part of the "Interior Sanctuary", "The Society of the Elus" (as in "elected" ; Société des élus), or the "Interior Church", as the order puts it.

The O*M*S.I. is affiliated to the GRAND PRIEURÉ MARTINISTE-MARTINÉZISTE INTERNATIONAL , the "International Grand Priory of Martinism-Martinezism", a kind of federation between several Martinist orders ;

Ordre Martiniste S::I::

Ordre des Chevaliers Macons Elus Cohen de l'Univers

Ordre Martiniste des C.B.C.S.

Marc Jones is also a Sovereign Grand Master of the "Ordre des Chevaliers Macons Elus Cohen de l'Univers" or "Order of the Elus Cohen" , based upon a filiation from René Chambellant and Gilbert Tappa . Chambellant (1907-1993) held a lineage from Constant Chevillon.

The rituals of the Elus-Cohen of this branch are being those which were used by CHEVILLON and CHAMBELLANT. They also incorporate the original texts of MARTINEZ OF PASQUALLY, texts which descended from a research-group from Brussels. They received the original material from Fr. Iacobus (Joël Duez) . Fr. Iacobus received them himself from the late Marcel Jirousek, from Brussels, disciple of the late Robert Ambelain.

The "Souverain Sanctuaire Général de l’Ordre Maçonnique Oriental du Régime Primitif et Rectifié de Memphis-Misraïm" (Filiation Constant Chevillon) of which Gilbert Tappa is the "Grand Conservateur ", installed a Lodge under the auspices of the "International Grand Priory of Martinism-Martinezism" in Kokszijde, Belgium (Autumn, 2000).

The O*M*S.I. also has its own church, which is known as the "Communauté Chrétienne Martiniste", the "Martinist Christian Community".

The order has Lodges in Belgium, Luxemburg, France (Paris, Nice, Marseille), Guadeloupe, Switzerland (Geneva) England ("St John", London), Togo (Africa)…




(S I G I) (ou S I V)






Résurgence de l'O M (dit de PAPUS) suite au Manifeste de 1952





Pierre RISPAL François ROQUE


(fin 1970-1971)

î ê

î Gilbert TAPPA

î í


(23 août 1989) & (20 mars 1997)


2000 Ancient Martinist Order AM*O*

The AM*O* was founded on April 8-9, 2000 at a gathering of Martinist initiates in Evansville, Indiana, U.S.A.. Many Martinists who attended the meeting were members of such Martinist Orders as "Ordre Martiniste" (O*M* de Paris), "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique" (Canada, Barbados and England), "Ordre Martiniste des Chevaliers du Christ" (O*M*CC), and "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique Reforme" (Ambelain, Kloppel - USA delegation). "In attendance were also the International Grand Master of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim from France (Vieilledant ), the National Sovereign Grand Master of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim of the National Sovereign Sanctuary (Ronald V.Cappello), leaders of the Gnostic Church in America ( Robert Cokinis, EGA, John Cole/Tau Ioannes Harmonius) etc." (Sar Michael-RC)

The meeting was carefully planned and its goal was to unify a number of Martinists from several Martinist bodies into one Martinist Order.

""It was agreed that all Martinists present would exchange lineages as did Chaboseau and Papus and go from there. Once all lineages were exchanged a formal vote was taken, officers elected…" etc.

"The Ancient Martinist Order begins its development and concepts in my home October 13, 1999. John Cole and some other Martinists from various Martinist Organizations were invited by myself (including the ' British Martinist Order' and 'TMO', both of whom never responded ) to discuss Martinist Unity ! Robert Ambelain before he died in 1997 had said that Martinism would die unless it was re-united and the body of work continued to increase" (Sar Michael-RC, AM*O*).

The main goal of these Martinists was to preserve the Martinist movement and it's future.

The result of the gathering was the foundation of the "Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Ancient Martinist Order". John Cole (Sar Quaero Lucem) was elected as Grand Master of the AM*O*. The Grand officers have an administrative term of office of 5 years. After 5 years one has to step down so as not to create demogogs, and this includes the members of a Supreme Council and Grand Master(s). There were also commitees formed to discuss Ritual, teachings and future development of associate orders and organizations.

John Cole is also a "Venerable Master" of a Memphis-Misraim Lodge (most likely in the lineage of C.H.Dupont-Ambelain-Kloppel-Vieilledant) in Indiana, Lodge "Alexandria", and a Bishop (Tau Ioannes Harmonius) in the "Ecclesia Gnostica Apostolica", EGA. Before the AM*O* was founded Cole served as Grand Commander of the "Rosicrucian Order of the Grail". The 'R+C Order of the Grail ' has served for over a decade as the Fraternal body of ICES, "The International College of Esoteric Studies". The 'chivalric' filiation of the "Rosicrucian Order of the Grail" is derived from Armand Toussaint and Triantafyllos Kotzamanis, Grand Commander of the " M:: Knights of the Rose Cross". At the moment the Grand Commander of the "Order of the Grail" is Rev.Donna Owen.

In November of the same year there was a gathering of the AM*O* in Chicago "to discuss further the growth of the AM*O* and do work on Memphis-Misraim and the Gnostic Church. The intention is to build a basic structure around 'the three Luminaries' , The Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim, The Ancient Martinist Order, and the Gnostic Church. There's a meeting of the Grand Lodge scheduled for this year (2001) in Cincinnati.

The "Ancient Martinist Order" confers the Initiation by granting the three "classic" Martinist Degrees ; Associate, Initiate, and Unknown Superior, S::I:: .

The AM*O* has Grand Lodges in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, New Jersey *, New York, and Ohio (U.S.A.), Brazil, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Canada …

* One of the members of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey is apparently Alberto La Cava, R.+. La Cava is a Co-Delegate of the 'Order of the Elus Cohens' for North America.

Lines of Succession

With regard to the filiations of the "Ancient Martinist Order" it can be said that all the original branches are represented within the AM*O*, including the branch of "Russian Martinism". The lineages of Philippe Encausse's "Ordre Martiniste" (de Paris), Victor Blanchard's "Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique", Toussaint's O*M*CC (including his filiation to the "Russian Martinism" derived from Novikov's "Theorists"), Ambelain's "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique" (Reforme) are all represented within the "Ordre Martiniste Ancien". All the major branches (starting with Papus and Chaboseau, then Blanchard, Teder, Bricaud, and Chevillon, through Dupont, Ambelain and Philippe Encausse ) are re-united within this order…

The result of all these lineages re-united into the AM*O* is, naturally, a 'possible connection' of various orders which, if desired, could result in some sort of system of "Higher Degrees". There are numerous "possibilties" within the AM*O* with regard to the filiations of the Order (and the people involved) ; Memphis-Misraim, Elus Cohen, OKR+C, EGA and several other Gnostic Churches, several Martinist Orders, Templar- and Rosicrucian filiations, CBCS / R.E.R., in other words, if you're looking for it- AM*O* might have it ! Of course, this is only a possible supposition for the future of the Order ::: :. :: …


Excerpt ; Proclamation of the birth of the "Ordre Martiniste Ancien" ;





"To: All Martinist Orders, their Grand Masters, Delegates, Inspectors,
Archivists, College of Superior Unknowns, their Lodge, Heptad and
Circle Masters, their Officers and all the Brothers and Sisters of these
Martinist Orders

Be it known that we the undersigned, having been granted the right and
justification from the Sovereign Grand Masters of the Orders Martinist
et Synarchique of Canada and Barbados and from the authorized
Delegates and Initiators Libre representing the Order Martiniste du Papus,
the Order Martinste Initiatic Reform (USA Delegation), the Order
Martiniste Chevaliers du Christ, and the Order of Elect Cohens, do on
this 9th day of the month of April in the year 2000 A. D., duly establish
also known as


Ordine Martinista Napolitano

Under the name "Martinisti Napolitani" the disciples of Eliphas Lévi designated a group of Italian students of the "Maestro".

The most illustrious disciples of Lévi which belonged to this group were undoubtedly Baron Nicholas Joseph Spedalieri en Paschal de Servis ( Izar )( son of Francisco I of Borbone ). Both Spedalieri (who proclaimed himself as "a member of the Grand Lodge of the Solitary Brothers of the Mountain, Frater Illuminatus of the Ancient and Restored Order of the Manichaeans and of the Martinists") and de Servis were initiated by Lévi.

Parts of the correspondence between Lévi and Spedalieri were published and are still available. Mine is a German version titled "Einweihungsbriefe in die Hohe Magie and Zahlenmystiek, Briefe an Baron Spedalieri (1861-1863)" translated into English "Letters of Initiation into the Higher Magic and Mysticism of Numbers, letters to Baron Spedalieri (1861-1863)".

Apparently there was a continuation of the correspondence "published", because documents ( copies) of the correspondence which can be found in the "Veriginelli-Rota" collection were classed under the French title of " Lettres d'Eliphas Lévi au Baron Spedalieri. Volumes III-IX (I and II missing) from 1863 to 1866.

Paschal De Servis ( Izar ) was acquainted with Papus and was the teacher of Kremmerz, Guiliano M. Kremmerz or J.M. Kremm-Erz, who's real name was Ciro Formisano (1861-1930). Apparently Izar's (De Servis) teachings were based upon the A.A.- SCALA DI NAPOLI system (A.A. stands for "Arcana Arcanorum" ). According to the Order's history one of his main interests was Astrology.There's a famous book called "Lunazioni" which was published by Kremmerz in the beginning of the 20th century and which was ascribed to Kremmerz, but Kremmerz always denied to be the author. Izar also introduced Kremmerz to Papus. During his lifetime, Kremmerz apparently stayed in contact with the French Martinist movement.

At the end of the 19th century Kremmerz founded the "Order of Myriam" ( 1896, "Fratellanza Terapeutico-Magica di Myriam" ). Kremmerz also established the "Ordine Osirideo Egizio" ( Egyptian Osirian Order ).

The FR+TM+DI MIRIAM was mainly a therapeutic school, the OOE was an internal Order dedicated to spiritual and operative Alchemy.

The Fr+Tm+ Di Myriam had branches in Bari ("Accademia Pitagorica"), Naples ("Accademia Sebezia"), and Rome ("Circolo Virgiliano").

The Order is still active today; the "Schola Philosophica Hermetica Classica Italica - Fratellanza Terapeutica - Magica di Miriam ( S.P.H.C.I. Fr+Tm+ di Miriam ).

According to the Ordine Martinista Napolitano of today, the school of Kremmerz has always been in essence 'a variation' of the Martinist Order (of Naples).

Another member of the group was Gaetano Petriccione ( Morienus ), who was a pupil of Spedalieri. The Ordine Martinista Napolitano was also active in France.

Morienus' son, Don Eduardo Petriccione ( Da Geber )( 1891 - 1966 ) succeeded Don Vicenzo Gigante (+1968). Don Luigi Ciardiello de Bourbon ( Argonauta) from France appointed his pupil "Caliel" ( Don Luigi Petriccione, 1928-1995) as successor.

Caliel was also the Grand Master of the Italian Golden Rosicrucian Order, "Rosacroce d'Oro" or "Rosacroce d'Oro Italiana" ( Gran Maestro Nazionale Osirideo in Italia, 1983-1995). Today the Order is lead by Grand Master Mauro Primavera,"Haiaiel", who was initiated by "Caliel". The Neapolitan Martinist Order has also a branch in Brazil. The Ordine Martinista Napolitano confers the Initiation by granting the three Degrees of Associato, Iniziato, S.I. , the Order also confers the 4th degree, S.I. I .

Occultism is part of the curriculum of the Order. The Order emphasizes on Meditation, Alchemy, and (Enochian) Ritual ( according to M.Roggemans).

Howfar the present-day curriculum of the Neapolitan Martinists is based on the A.A. - SCALA DI NAPOLI and Cagliostro's Egyptian Masonry, is unknown to me.

According to Grand Master Caliel Naples has an Initiatic chain which exists for centuries and which goes all the way back to Ancient Egypt.

"The Egyptian Egregore was adapted to the "Fratellanza Magico-Hermetica" of the middle-ages", thus Caliel. In this context I'll also hint at the ancient tradition of the ancient Italian "Wicca" tradition which is known as "Stregheria".

Their mysteries were based on the Isiac- (Lunar) and Osirian (Solar) mysteries.

The Ordine Martinista Napolitano states that the first Grand Master was Don Raimondo de Sangro (1710-1771), Prince of Sansevero, who was one of the most famous Alchemists and Masons in the 18th century.

He was also the teacher of Baron Tschudy, who would later found the Hermetic Rite "Etoile Flamboyante", which "system" was based on Hermetism and Alchemy as taught by his Master when he was in Naples (around 1751) .

( Baron Tschudy published a Hermetic treatise called "The Hermetic Masonic Catechism of the Burning Star "). The Prince of Sansevero was a brilliant man, a master of languages (incl. Hebrew and Arab), who specialized in Alchemy and sciences in general. The last years of his life were completely dedicated to embellishing a famous local Chapel with marble works from the greatest artists of the time, "with the aim of making the Chapel the center of the Neapolitan Baroque sculpture, and to leave behind him a cryptic and allegorical message, according to the mystery so present in all his life" (Museo Cappella Sansevero,Naples, Italy). This famous monument is ornamented with alchemical symbolism, according to the Ordine Martinista Napolitano, "this remarkable monument, whose permanent message is under the eyes of all those that can read"….

The Initiatic transmission of the "Alchemical Lineage" of Grand Master Don Raymondo di Sangro, Prince of Sansevero, up to the present day ;

Don Vincenzo di Sangro (1743-1790)

Don Paul d'Aquino, Prince of Palena

Don Peter d'Aquino, grandson of and Count of Caramanico

Don Antonio Marino, Initiator and Teacher of Eliphas Lévi.

Don Pasquale de Servis, IZAR (1818-1910, G.M. from 1867-1879)

Giustiniano Lebano (1832-1910)

Don Gaetano Petriccione ( Morienus ), pupil of IZAR

Antonio de Santis ( Filaletes Iatricus )

Don Vincenzo Gigante ( - 1968 ), pupil of Lebano

Don Eduardo Petriccione ( Da Geber )( 1891 - 1966 ), son of Morienus

Filippo Costa (Ishabel), pupil of Filaletes Iatricus

Don Luigi Ciardiello ( argonaut )

Don Luigi Petriccione ( Caliel en Usarcaf, 1928 - 1995 ), son of Geber and pupil of 'Argonaut'. Caliel was also a bishop of the "Ecclessia Gnostica Apostolica", E.G.A., under the name of "Tau Chrisogonos"

Mauro Primavera ( Haiaiel ) leads the order at the present day


Ordine Martinista ( 1910 )


According to letters of Italian Martinists written to Papus ( Bibliotheque de Lyon, Papus n.°5.846, di Joly del 1962 ) such as Rosa Tommasi and Paolucci, there existed in 1898 eight Martinist Lodges in Italy. Several of these Italian Martinists (Giacomo Borracci, Michele de Vicenzo Majulli, Enrico Vigliano ) founded the "Pythagorean Academy" at Bari ( "Accademia barese Pitagora della F+T+M+M+", Kremmerz). Dunstano Cancellieri, a prominent Mason at the time, received in 1910 a Charter from Papus to establish a Martinist Lodge of the "Ordre Martiniste" in Rome.

Other lodges followed ;

In Florence - Giovanni Hofmann, Amerigo Bianchini, Edgardo Frosini*, Arturo Reghini*. Domizio Torrigiani (GM of Italian Masonry until 1926).

In Naples - Costantino De Simone Miniaci, ad Ancona Adolfo Banti, (Alembroth S:I:::), Marco Egidio Allegri a Venezia .

Both Frosini and Reghini were prominent Italian esoterists at the time. At the age of 22 Reghini (1878-1946) was among the founders of the Italian branch of HPB's "Theosophic Society". Reghini ("Maximus") was also a dignitary of the Memphis-Misraim Rite and was involved in the establishment of the "Italian Philosophic Rite" of 7 Degrees in 1910. The rite was "an attempt to promote unification of the splintered Masonicgroups by returning to the Craft's eady spiritual roots" ('a Modern Pythagorean', Dana Lloyd Thomas ), Reghini was one of the promoters of Occultism which was based on faith, science, and reason, in 1927 Reghini moved to the "UR group" of Julius Evola. Frosini ("Hermes") was the General Delegate of the "Spanish Rite" for Italy and founder of the "Rite Philosophique Italien", the "Italien Philosophic Rite". He worked in a close collaboration with Reghini and G.di San Fortunato. Frosini was a high dignitary of Memphis-Misraim (33*90*96*). In 1912 Frosini became, together with Charles Detre", the "Legats gnostique de l'Eglise Gnostique Universelle".Frosini and Reghini collaborated with many of the prominent European occultists at the time, Yarker, Reuss, Hansen (Denmark), Crowley etc.

In 1918 the president of the Gran Consiglio Italico della Gran Loggia Martinista nazionale, the Italian Martinist Grand Council, is Alexander Sacchi (Sinesius S::I::). News from France arrived regarding the reformation of the Martinist Order by Bricaud (the "Masonic reorganization"). In 1920 the situation is not yet solved. A part of the Italian Martinists remain loyal to the Martinist Order of Lyon (Bricaud), they're headed by Vicenze Soro.

In 1923 there's a Martinist convention were the Italian Grand Council openly opposes to the "innovations" of Bricaud. Apparently in 1925 Sacchi appointed several Regional Grand Masters which headed their region and worked independently.

In 1945 the order reunites under Marco Egidio Allegri (Flamelicus S::I::), Flamelicus dies in 1949 and is succeeded by Conte Ottavio Ulderigo Zasio (Artephius S::I::)

In 1959 the following Martinist Orders are 'active' in Italy;

Ordine Martinista "di Venezia" (filiation Papus -Sacchi -Allegri- Zasio)

Ordine Martinista degli Eletti Cohen (E.C. filiation Ambelain – Mosca)

Ordine Martinista (connected to Philippe Encausse's Martinist Order)

On a Convention in Ancona ( December 9, 1962 ) the Martinist Order is officially re-established in Italy under Artephius (protocollo di riunificazione degli Ordini Martinisti italiani, the protocol of re-unification of the Italian Martinist Orders).

In 1966 Artephius dies and is succeeded by Bandarin (Manas S::I::), Bandarin dies in July of 1966. There's a resistance against the election of Gastone Ventura as Grand Master of the Order. In 1967 Ventura is elected but there's a second GM installed next to Ventura, this is Francesco Brunelli.

In 1971 Brunelli left the "Ordine Martinista" and founded another Martinist Order which later would be known as the "Ordine Martinista Antico e Tradizionale".

Ventury dies in 1981 and is succeeded by Sebastiano Caracciolo.

The filiation of the "Ordine Martinista" ;


Dunstano Cancellieri (Charter from Papus, received in 1910 )

Sinesius S:::I::: (Alessandro Sacchi)

Flamelicus S:::I::: (Marco Egidio Allegri)

Arthephius S:::I::: (Conte Ottavio Ulderigo Zasio)

Manas S:::I::: (Bandarin)

Aldebaran S:::I::: (Conte Gastone Ventura)

Virgilius S:::I::: (Sebastiano Caracciolo)


Ordine Martinista Antico / Ordine Martinista Antico e Tradizionale ( 1971 )


The Order was "officially" founded in Rome on October 31, 1971, under the name of "Ordine Martinista di Lingua Italica". The founders of the Order were former prominent members of the "Ordine Martinista", lead by Gastone Ventura (Aldeberan) at the time. Several of the members of the Supreme Council of the "Ordine Martinista", among which Luigi Furlotti (Aloysius) and Francesco Brunelli (Nebo), did not wish to acknowledge the office of Grand Master Ventura any longer and caused a schism within the Order. Ventura's "Ordine Martinista" was based on the traditional Order of Papus, with an emphasis on the philosophical-metaphysical aspects, but without the possibilities to advance to the so-called "higher degrees" which were also part of Papus' system. Therefore the " Ordine Martinista di Lingua Italica" was founded with an emphasis on the Operative system of Ambelain ("pratiche magico-teurgiche di Ambelain") and the inspiration taken from the French Martinezists, without losing sight of the original intention (Devotion, 'the Way of the Heart') as advocated by LC de Saint-Martin. The "O*M* di Lingua Italica" was founded by seven Martinists ; Luigi Furlotti (Aloysius), Francesco Brunelli (Nebo), Claudio Travaglini (Lucius), Giuseppe Rossi (Sirius), Alessandro Gamerra (Melkior), "Sette", and "Ignis".

Luigi Furlotti was appointed as Grand Master.' Sette' was appointed as Grand Secretary-Treasurer of the Order. Hardly six months after his appointment as Grand Master Furlotti dies, on April 29, 1972. In September 1972 Brunelli is installed as Grand Master in the city of Perugia. In the following 10 years under Brunelli the order flourished throughout Italy. The order had lodges in Perugia (residence of Brunelli), Rome (residence of Sette and Libertus, successor of Brunelli), Milan, Turin, Genoa, Florence, Bologna, Taranto, and Palermo.

On September 13, 1974, the "O*M* di Lingua Italica" officially changed its name in "Ordine Martinista Antico e Tradizionale". The new name should emphasize the distinction between the "Ancient & Traditional Martinist Order" and the so-called "Order of Venice" (Ventura's "Ordine Martinista"). Around the midst of the 1970's Brunelli / "Nebo" published a book called "Daleth" ("Libro Daleth"), a guide-book of Theoretical-Practical work ment for the S.I.I members of the Order.

Around 1980 there were some internal discords with regard to the S.I.I /Initiator-degree, a problem Brunelli could not solve in time during his reign. Brunelli addressed this "problem" at the 1981 "Collegoi degli Iniziatori" ('College of Initiators"), a convention held in the city of Pieve. In 1982 Brunelli died and his intended successor, Vicenzo Mura ("Ram"), died within a couple of months of Brunelli, 1982 was the "annus horribilis" of the Order. It was also the year of Gastone Ventura's (GM of the "Ordine Martinista" / "Ordine Martinista di Venezia" ) decease.

Francesco Brunelli was also Grand Hierophant of the "Ancient & Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim", a Grand Master of the OKR+C, and primate for Italy of the 'Univeral Gnostic Apostolic Church' (Gnostica Apostolica Universale).

The original choice of the Supreme Council for the Grand Mastership was Goivanni, head of the Lodge in Rome and Superieur Inconnu of the Grand Lodge. Goivanni refuses the assignment. It was Renato Comin, "Libertus", who would finally succeed Brunelli. Apparently it was decided that Libertus was chosen for a period of seven years, but he already stepped down after two years, in 1984, due to health problems. On December 2, 1984, Goivanni is chosen (17 votes in favour from a total of 32) as the new Grand Master. A small group of S.I. members, mostly 'Brunelli-loyalists' from the Lodge of Perugia, leaves the Order. In 1985 Giovanni adds to his name the "Nomen Mysticum" of Aniel, his 'Guardian Angel'.

In 1992 Giovanni Aniel apparently left the Order and founded the "Ordine Martinista Universali". Or, in the words of the O*M*U, the order changed its name to "Ordine Martinista Universali". Aniel was succeeded in 1992 by Grand Master Amorifer of the Lodge in Livorno.

The filiation of the Antico Ordine Martinista :

Luigi Furlotti, Aloysius 1972

Francesco Brunelli, Nebo 1972-1982

Renato Comin, Libertus 1982-1984

Giovanni "Aniel", 1984-1992

Amorifer, 1992


Ordine Martinista Universali ( 1992 )

At the end of the 1980's Giovanni Aniel, Grand Master of the "Antico Ordine Martinista" at the time, worked on a document which he would publish around 1992 under the name of "La Magna Charta del Martinismo". The "Magna Charta" consists of eight points, which together form the constitution of the order with regard to the philosophy and the practical workings of the Order. Aniel's "Magna Charta" contradicted the constitution of the "Antico Ordine Martinista" on several points, especially with regard to the S.I.I. degree and the position of the Grand Master. Another alteration was that women were given the faculty to transmit the Initiation, in other words women were granted the S.I.I Degree. The first woman to receive the Initiator's Degree was a certain "Maria" (Nomen Mysticum) of the Milan Lodge.

Therefore it was decided to found the "Ordine Martinista Universali", or as the O*M*U puts it, "in order to mark the new course, the name was changed to " Universal Martinist Order", the order being a direct continuation of the "Ordine Martinista Antico e Tradizionale".

The above was confirmed by Fabrizio Mariani, spokesman of the O*M*U in an e-mail dated May 11, 2001 ;

Dear Friend,

The order received this new name, "Univeral Martinist Order", in 1992, but the order is the direct continuation of the "Ancient and Traditional Martinist Order". When women were given the faculty to transmit the Martinist Initiation, it was decided to change the Order's name"… (freely transl. )

Original e-mail :

gentile amico,

l'Ordine Martinista Universale nel 1992 assunse questo nome nuovo, ma l'Ordine è la diretta continuazione dell'Ordine Martinista Antico e Tradizionale. Cambiò nome perchè estese anche alle donne la facoltà di trasmettere l'iniziazione. Giovanni Aniel ne è Gran Maestro dal 2 dicembre 1984.Spero di esserle stato utile.


Fabrizio Mariani

(by the way, I've neaver received any answer to my 2nd E-Mail in which I asked if the members who did not follow Aniel into the O*M*U still continued their activities within the "Ancient & Trad.Martinist Order")

Giovanni Aniel appoints Francesco Leiaiel as Grand Secretary-treasurer, "Enoch" as Grand Master General of Ceremonies (freely transl., 'Gran Cerimoniere' ), Vega as President of the College of Northern Italy, Nut as President of the College of Central Italy, and Nicolaus as President of the College of Southern Italy. Leiaiel and Enoch were entrusted with the adaptions of the Rituals (Initiation- and the ' home' rituals).The O*M*U is structured in three Degrees + One (Initiators Degree) and has two sections, the Exoteric- and Esoteric Section.

Exoteric Section :

1st Degree, Associate (Associato Incognito). In this Degree the Martinist receives a daily ritual to put the Martinist in contact with the Egregore of the Order. The O*M*U supplies the Associate with written material to give the Martinist the possibility "to deepen his or her studies".

Esoteric Section :

2nd Degree, Initiate (Iniziato Incognito). Next to the daily ritual the Initiate receives a Lunar Ritual, a ritual connected with the phases of the new- and full moon. The Initiate also receives written material.

3rd Degree, S.I. (Superior Incognito, a sacerdotal degree). Next to the daily- and Lunar rituals the S.I. receives a Solar Ritual, which is connected with the Solstices and Equinoxes. Written material emphasizes on the study of the Kabbalah and its practical work.

The O*M*U also confers the S.I.I Degree, Superior Incognito Iniziato (Initiators Degree). The Grand Master is chosen by and from the S.I.I. members of the Order (College of S.I. Initiators) and is chosen for life.When the GM is chosen a ritual will follow which delegates the forces of the Order through the assembled S.I. Initiators. Kneeling down in the centre of a circle formed by the S.I.Initiators, the Grand Master receives the imposition (hands on head).This way the only person who is authorized to initiate another S.I. Initiator. I've already stated in the chapter on the "Ordine Martinista Antico e Tradizionale" that there were some discords with regard to the S.I.I Degree within the O*M*A. There were probably two points of discussion at the time :

Only the GM had the authorization to initiate a S.I.I

The S.I.I Degree could not be granted to Women

In 1992 Giovanni Aniel changed the procedure of the Installation of a Grand Master when he delegated the imposition , the biblical "laying on of hands", to the College of S.I.Initiators. This way the assembled S.I.I members were authorized to initiate new S.I.Initiators. As stated before, Aniel also allowed women to receive the S.I.I Degree.

The Solar- and Lunar Rituals are taken from a book called "Alpha", a book (or manuscript) which Aniel inherited from Brunelli in 1985. According to the O*M*U the Martinist tradition cannot neglect the aspect of Theurgy and Ceremonial Magic. "Even Saint-Martin, who was more inclined to follow a path of devotion, continued to practise the Operative aspect of Magic up to his death", thus the O*M*U ( taken from the "Magna Carta", point 4).

In 1994 the Order started to publish a review, "Anubi ", which is ment for the members of the Order and apparently also for all other Italian Martinists. The "Ordine Martinista Universali" currently is represented in nearly all the Italian regions and in the South of France.

Ordine Martinista Kremmerziano

No information available (or : see "Ordine Martinista")

Grand Master : Mario Betti , MELAHEL



Orden Martinista ( 1987 )


This Order was founded on December 25, 1987 by Sar Anael, Sar Justitia, Sar Iohannes, and Sar Unidad (all S.I.IV). Sar Anael is the Grand Master of the O*M* of Spain. Not much is known about the order nor its leaders. In the 1970's the Martinists in Spain were lead by Jose de Via ( Persival ) , who was appointed by Philippe Encausse as National Sovereign Delegate of the O*M* (of Paris) in Spain. Not much is known about the order's history in Spain.

The "Orden Martinista" uses the ' original ' definitive ritual as published by Charles Détré (Téder ) in 1913 for the O*M* of Papus:

"rituel de l'ordre martiniste Dit de Teder publié en 1913 autorisation du 13 août 1913 de Papus et de Phaneg"

According to Sar Anael is Détré's ritual a copy of the handwritten ritual of François-Charles Barlet ( Barlet was one of the first people Papus called on to form the O*M*'s Supreme Counsil ; Barlet also succeeded De Guaita as GM of the OKR+C).

The subject of the origin of Téder's ritual of the O*M* of Papus has already been dealt with in the Chapter "The Degrees and Rituals of the Ordre Martiniste…" of this series. But after I'd finished the chapter I discovered certain sections of Détré's ritual which are placed on the web by Marriete Cyvard (Maitre passes, Martinist E-group). As stated in the Chapter "The Degrees and Rituals of the Ordre Martiniste", R.A. in his book "L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ed. 2000" clearly states that Détré adapted the rituals of Edouard Blitz in French before he succeeded as G.M. of the "Ordre Martiniste" in 1916. I've compared Détré''s ritual in French with the English version of Blitz, as published on the "Maitres passes E-group" website. Marriete Cyvard only published certain sections of the "Ritual" ("General Regulations of the Order") and not the rituals themselves. The two texts are "identical". Blitz' "Ritual & Monitor" is dated 1896 and the foreword written and signed by Papus and Jacques Burg (Secretary Supreme Counsil) is dated 1894.

Excerpt from Détré's "ritual" (ROBES, BIJOUX, INSIGNES), dated 1913.

"Les robes sont blanches pour le Conseil, et elles sont serrées à la taillepar une ceinture dorée pour le PHILOSOPHE INCONNU, et par des ceinturesargentées ou blanches pour ses trois Assesseurs. Ils ont un bonnet de soieblanche avec le Pentagramme brodé en or ; ils ont aussi un collet de soieblanche ou de velours auquel sont suspendus les insignes suivants :FRÈRE INCONNU, le Sceau de Salomon, en or ;FRÈRE INITIÉ, le Pentagramme, en or ;FRÈRE ASSOCIÉ, la Croix de Malte, en or".


Excerpt from Blitz' "ritual" (ROBES, BADGES, JEWELS, AND REGALIA), dated 1896

"The robes are white for the Council, and are tied around the waist by a golden girdle for the UNKNOWN PHILOSOPHER, and a silver or white girdle for the three Assessors. They will wear a white silk cap with the Pentagram embroidered in gold, also a white silk or velvet collar with the following badges suspended therefrom : UNKNOWN BROTHER, the Seal of Solomon, in gold; BROTHER INITIATE, the Pentagram, in gold; BROTHER ASSOCIATE, the Maltese Cross, in gold".

Both texts are 100% compatible …. (I do not claim that Edouard Blitz is the author of the original Martinist ' Ritual '…, I'm merely saying that both texts are 'identical'. Did Détré translated Blitz' work or, did both men use the same "source" ?). As mentioned earlier, According to Sar Anael the source is a handwritten document of Barlet, but others state that it was Stanislas de Guaita who developed the original Martinist Rituals (see "Martinist Rituals"), and A.E.Waite claimed that it was Papus himself who produced these rituals between 1887 and 1890 … …

The "Rituel de l'Ordre Martiniste" was published by Dorbon-Aîné and is obtainable from a specialized esoteric bookshop.


Martinism in South-America


The following text is a general survey of the development of Martinism in South-America in the 20th century. The text is based on the " Zuid-Amerika" part of the

"1891 SUPRÊME CONSEIL DE L'ORDRE MARTINISTE" page of Marcel Roggeman's study "Geschiedenis van de Occulte en Mystieke Broederschappen" at


The text is mainly focused on the history of the development of Martinism in Brazil. Special thanks to Carlos Eduardo Dias Reis from Brazil for his assistence and contributions.


Some of the first signs of Martinist activities in South-America which are documented date back to the beginning of the 20th century, when the first Martinist Lodges were established in Curitiba, Brazil.

The first (documented) Martinist circle was established on July 10, 1900, under the leadership of Dr.Borges. In 1904 another group is established in the city of Parana. In the same year, 1904, Dr.Dario Velloso (Appolonio, 1869-1937), author and philosopher, is appointed Sovereign Delegate of the Martinist Order in Brazil. In these first years the Martinist Order of Velloso was not very succesful in Brazil and already in 1909 Velloso disbanded the Martinist Order. He founded a new order based on a Pythagorean philosophy with an emphasis on the Grecian philosophy.

Another Martinist at the time was Antonio Olivio Rodrigues (Aor, 1879-1943). He became a member of Lodge "Amor e Vervade" in Sao Paulo in 1907. He was a personal friend of Dr.Horacio de Carvalho, who was initiated by Papus. In 1909 Rodrigues became the pioneer of the "Círculo Esotérico da Comunhão do Pensamento", a society which would become very succesful and prospered during the first half of the 20th century in Brazil. This esoteric circle organized lectures, courses, conventions, and owned its own publishing company, "O Pensamento". One of their members was Francisco Waldomiro Lorenz (Sevaka), who was born in Bohemia (Czechoslovakia) in 1878. He had published his first book at the age of eighteen and would later publish several books on the Kabbalah and occultism.

Albert Raymond Costet-Conde de Mascheville (Cedaior, 1872-1943) was born in Valence in France. He'd studied at the school of music (violin) in Paris. He had met Philippe Nizier (Maitre Philippe) at the time of his stay in Paris. Costet received his initiation from Yvon Leloup (Sédir ) in 1892. He was also a member of the Gnostic Church of Jules Doinel, who had personally initiated Costet into the Gnostic Church in 1893. Costet later also obtained the "Doctor of Kabbalah" -Degree of the OKR+C. Costet was a personal friend of Oswald Wirth. He went to Egypt to do some archeologic research by order of the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order in Paris. While in Egypt Costet met Auguste Mariette-Bey (famous Egyptologist - *note ; Verdi based his opera "Aida" on an outline of a story by Marriette-Bey ). Costet also payed a visit to the affiliated Martinist Lodges in Egypt. The results of his studies were ment for Sedir and Papus.

In 1910 Costet and his family left France and moved to Argentina. On February 26, 1910 he and his family arrived in Buenos Aires. He settled down in a place called Joinville, which is known today as Santa Catarina. A friend of Albert Costet, Ida Hofman, had arranged his home in Argentina. Hofman, a Austrian piano-teacher, had founded the vegetarian colony of Monte Verità, in the Swiss canton of Ticino, in 1910 together with Henri Oedenhoven. In 1916 she would bring Theodor Reuss to Monte Verità where he founded the "Verita Mistica" Lodge of the O.T.O.

In 1920 Albert Costet initiated his son, Léo Alvarez Costet de Mascheville ( Jehel ), into the Martinist Order. Costet would later succeed Dari Velloso as Sovereign Delegate of the O*M* in Brazil.

In the following years Martinism started to become more succesfull. Another Martinist which joined the Order at the time was Borges de Macedo ( Gemini ).

In 1936 Albert Costet moved to Sao Paulo, his son is appointed as President of the Martinist-Order. On December 23, 1939, the Constitution of the Martinist Order of South -America is proclaimed in Porte Alegree, Brazil. The constitution united all Martinists of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. The Martinist Order in South-America became independent on March 14, 1940. The Order decided to use the "Téder Ritual" of 1913.

In April 1942 the G.I.D.E.E., "Grupos Independentes de Estudos Esotéricos" , is founded. There were branches in Montevideo, Buenos Aires, and La Plata. In 1942 the organization starts to publish the review ‘La Iniciacion’ . The last issue is published in 1947. The first translations of various 'classical works' appear on ' the market '. The "Kabbalistic Order of the Rose+Cross" is seen as the "inner circle" of the Martinist Order. The "Higher degrees" of the Martinist Order are the three grades of the OKR+C :

1-4 , Martinist Degrees

5-7 , OKR+C Degrees

In Chile the Martinist Order was promoted and lead by Leo Tournier ( "Bethel group"). The EGA ( Ecclesia Gnostica Apostolica ) was closely associated to Tournier's M*O* in Chile. Within the wake of the M*O* the EGA flourished in Chile at the time, together with the "Suddha Dharma Mandalam" , an organization which also was connected somehow to the M*O* in Chile.

During the Second World War the whole movement flourished in South-America, in 1944 there existed 23 groups with a total of 442 Initiates (S::I::).

In 1945 there was a split within the Martinist Order, the Order was divided in three separate branches :

Ordem Martinista da América do Sul, headed by Peter Pinto Soares Freire (ATHAUALPA), this order was active in Brazil. Freire was a S.I.I and owned the "Doctor of kabbalah" Degree of the OKR+C, which he had received from Francisco Waldomiro Lorenz. He would later become a Patriarch of the EGA under the authority of Robert Ambelain.

Ordem Martinista, headed by ' Jehel ' , Albert Costet's son. This Order continued its activities in Montevideo, Uruguay. Jehel returned to Brazil in 1953.

Ordem Martinista Universal, this order established itself in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The Order today

In 1970 Ary Island Xavier (Sedir, 1932-1978) started the initiative to re-connect the Order to the Order in Europe. In 1973 he met Robert Ambelain, who was the Grand Master of the "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique" at the time, in Paris. Philippe Encausse appointed Xavier as National Sovereign Delegate for the O*M* in Brazil.

Xavier's position was equal to Ivan Mosca (Hermete), who was the Delegate for Italy, and Jose de Via (Persival), Delegate for Spain.

In 1976 Emilio Lorenzo (who was responsible for Encausse's O.M. in South-America)

And his wife Maria visited the Martinists in South-America. They went to Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Xavier died in 1978 … AMORC's T.M.O. started to establish its first groups in Brazil after a National Convention of AMORC held in Curitiba in October 1986. As stated in the chapter on the TM*O* ; " In Brazil the T*M*O* was launched officially during the XI Convenção Nacional Rosacruz (11th Rosicrucian national Convention), in October of 1986, by the Grand Master of the T*M*O* at the time, Ralph Maxwell Lewis F.R.C., S.I. , L.I.

The Grand Master of the Portuguese Jurisdiction at the time is Charles Vega Parucker F.R.C., S . I . L . I .

The Heptad of Sao Paulo, which was founded in 1994, already initiated 740 members in six years time, 360 of them being S.I.'s.

Beside the above mentioned organizations the following Martinist Orders are currently operating in Brazil ;

Ordre Martiniste & Synarchique, Ordem Martinista Brasileira ( branch of the "Ordre Martiniste de Paris", lead by Emilio Lorenzo ), Ancient Martinist Order, O*M*CC, OM Napolitano

The Legacy of Davidson and Krumm-Heller

The above text does not mention such characters as Arnold Krumm-Heller and Peter R.Davidson, two people who were very important with regard to the introduction of Martinism in South-America.

Peter R.Davidson was one of the founders of the influential "Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor" (see chapters "HB of L" ) and acted as the official representor of the Martinist Order in the U.S.A. at the time of his stay in Georgia. Dr.Arnold Krumm-Heller (1876-1949) had received his initiation at Lodge "Hermanubis" (nr.192) in Paris. At the end of the 19th century Krumm-Heller (Huiracocha) had left Germany after which he traveled to South-America (first Chile, and later Mexico). Krumm-Heller associated with many well-known 20th century occultists and order-leaders, among which: Papus, Henry Steel Olcott, Rudolf Steiner, Aleister Crowley, Karl Germer, Spencer Lewis, Theodor Reuss, Heinrich Klein, Charles Detré, Francois-Charles Barlet and Swinburne Clymer. In 1908 Krumm-Heller was appointed as Sovereign Delegate of the Martinist Order in Chile, Peru and Bolivia by Papus. One month later, in April 1908, he received permission to install Martinist Lodges in these countries from Charles Détré . He had also received a charter of the Memphis-Misraim Rite from Reuss for Mexico. Krumm-Heller was one of the successors of Theodor Reuss' O.T.O. (see Peter R.Koenig's website on the O.T.O. "the Ordo Templi Orientis phenomenon" at ).

At the end of the first decade of the 20th century Krumm-Heller, together with Peter Davidson and Girgois (from Buenos Aires), started to establish Martinist Lodges in various cities, which were under the jurisdiction of the order in Paris (Papus). According to Gabriel Sanchez Gaviria ( FRA Colombia ) Dr. Girgois and Dr. Arturo Clement were the Martinist ' Masters ' of Krumm-Heller in South-America at the time.

In 1927 Krumm-Heller founded the "Fraternitas Rosicruciana Antiqua", a Rosicrucian fraternity which mainly focused its activities on South-America.


Sergio Valdivia (1947- ) was initiated by Oscar Bravo into the F.R.A. in Chile. Bravo was a disciple of Elias Bucheli ( Hagal, from Colombia), an associate of Krumm-Heller and Clymer. Bravo was later expelled from Clymer's FRC (Fraternidad Rosa Cruz ) and went into Martinism and Masonry.

"In 1973 also I was regularly initiate in the Order Martinist, Papus filiation. In 1982 I was ratified by Phillipe Encausse and the current Great Master of the Order, Emilio Lorenzo, in order to work in Chile at head of the Order. At the moment we hold numerous active Martinist Groups with hundred of students".

From: Instituto Círculo Aleph - Sergio Valdivia (email Koenig ,Oct.2000) "Baphomet and Rosycross"

At the time (2001) Sergio Valdivia leads an organisation under the banner of O.T.O, "Orden de Templos Operativos", an organization which "re-unites several of the more prestigious Initiatic schools of the world", thus Valdivia's O.T.O., which stands for "Order of the Operative Temples" . The Order incorporates teachings derived from various schools like Martinism, Rosicrucianism (probably FRA -FRC), Golden Dawn, and "Third Millenium" ("Los Servidores del Tercer Milenio"). The order has lodges in several cities in Chile ( Santiago, Valparaiso, Quilpue, San Felipe y Temuco) and the rosicrucian activities (FRA-studies) extend to Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Spain.

I would like to add to this story that the present day situation in Chile regarding the activities of FRA related organizations is rather confusing to the outsider, the whole history of the FRA and its affiliations can be found on P.R.Koenig's website:

"Ein Leben fuer die Rose" Arnoldo Krumm Heller

Orden Martinista Iniciatica del Chile / O*M* Initiatique of Chile

In 1968 the Order in Chile, which was a branch of Robert Ambelain's "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique", became a Masonic Order. They started to work "a Masonic System of High Degrees", in other words the Order implemented the degrees of the "Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim" into its curriculum.

Between 1968 and 1970 The Martinist-Masons of Chile established a special branch within its "system", which they named "La Clase del Parvis". This branch served as a foundation or entry into the Martinist Order and its degrees. This Branch worked the Blue Rituals of the Memphis-Misraim Rite ( Apprentice, Companion, Master-Mason).

Through the years the Order in Chile adapted the rituals to the work of a mixed Lodge and to a system which corresponded to the symbolism of Alchemy, Hermeticism, and the Qabalah.

In 1985 the rite also implemented the R.E.R. (Rectified Scottish Rite) and Ambelain's ELUS COHEN into their system of Higher Degrees. The Order received the approval of the Sovereign Sanctuary of the M.'.M.'. of Argentina. For reasons of a better administration, The Higher Degrees of Masonry were seperated from the Martinist Order. The Masonic Order is known today as the "Orden Masónica Hermetica Qabalistica". The OMHQ works with the traditional 33 Degrees of the Scottish system. Members of this Masonic Rite have the possibility to join the Martinist Order of Chile ( O*M*Initiatique ). The O*M*I of Chile is derived from the following filiations:

Through the Lodge "Northern Star" in St-Petersburg (Czarist time, beginning 20th century) ; Nicholas Rogalev Girs (Nabusar), Sergio Venniacof (Sudekin), and Alexander Mihitin.

Through the succession of Lodge "San Jorge" ( 1) in Kiev, from which Robert Ambelain derived his "Russian Lineage".

Through the "Ordre Martiniste de Papus", received from Philippe Encausse.

1) the O*M* of Chile refers to the Kiev Lodge as Lodge "San Jorge"; Elsewhere in this text this Lodge is called "Saint-André", I assume this is one and the same lodge although I'm not certain …


In 1935 a FRA Lodge is founded in Lima ( FRA-Aula "Santo Graal" ). During the seventies the FRA was lead by a Martinist (Papus-Krumm Heller filiation), Manuel Garay Requena (1897-1986). In the 1990's a certain A.Navarro Roncagniolo starts the publication of a magazine called "Gnosis". According to this magazine a branch of Ambelain's "Ordre Martiniste Initiatique" is 'active' in Peru at the time (1991)

Lucien François Jean-Maine, a hoax ?

The oldest Martinist filiation of South-America is the so-called "Haitin Line", represented by Lucien François Jean-Maine (1869-1960). But the reader must bear in mind that there's (almost) no evidence of the history of the whole movement before 1966(O.T.O.A.). I'll quote P.R.Koenig when he states :

"There is absolutely no trace of either L.-F. Jean-Maine or of his Gnostic Church, his Memphis Misraïm or his OTO-Version (O.T.O.A.) in any of the 'old' French Gnostic magazines. Obviously the History of the O.T.O.A. and its maze of related organisations seems to be developed by Marc Lully, Michael P.Bertiaux, and Manuel C.Lamparter, and maybe Kenneth Grant, in the late 1960s. Bertiaux admitted that his History outline was written from notes drafted by Marc Lully; and those notes had been lost meanwhile". Taken from "Ordo Templi Orientis Antiqua, a Gnostic Inflation "

The following is based on the "historical facts" as presented by the O.T.O.A..

As mentioned earlier in the chapter "Ordre des Elus-Cohen" Maine's relatives were apparently members of the original Cohen-temple in Leogane, Haiti. The Elus Cohen on Haiti were known as the " Temples Cohens de Port-au-Prince et de Lèogane", and functioned up until 1780 (which is a fact beyond any doubt). After De Pasqually's death several members of the Elus Cohen, together with some Masons and Templars, created a syncretism called "Les Templiers Noires", "the Black Templars".These members were Creole-French.


Lucien François Jean-Maine , was consecrated as a Gnostic Bishop ((Tau Ogdoade-Orfeo I ) in France at the beginning of the 20th century by Emmanuel Fabre des Essarts (Synésius).

It is stated that he also 'exchanged' several of his filiations with Papus at the time of Maine's stay in Paris around 1910. When Maine returned to Haiti in 1921 in founded the O.T.O.A., "Ordo Templi Orientis Antiqua", based on Papus' O.T.O. charter which Maine had received. In 1922 Jean-Maine founded the voudoun -Masonic order of "La Coleuvre Noire"

( Cult of the Black Snake ). The whole Haitian movement culminated in a kind of federation of orders (O.T.O.A. etc.) to which several Martinist orders (Maine-lineage) were affiliated ;

The Universal Martinist Federation of Initiates

The Martinist Order of the Rose-Croix and Aleph-Initiates

The Interior Sanctuary of the Elus Cohens

According to the text "History of the O.T.O.A" "Jean-Maine on several occasions sought to bring about unity within the total Gnostic family and sought to communicate this idea to Bricaud and his successors. However, out of fear of a magical takeover, making use of the techniques of esoteric Voudoo, the records of the older Gnostic churches were destroyed, making any evidence of Jean-Maine's link with Encausse difficult to prove. Only in the Spanish Sovereign Sanctuary of Memphis-Misraim, from which all French occultists admit that Encausse derived his Memphis-Misraim authority, were these documents cherished".



Robert AMADOU, Documents Martinistes 1979 Edi-Repro

Robert AMBELAIN, Le Martinisme - Histoire et doctrine 1946 Editions Niclaus

Marie-Sophie ANDRE & Papus biographie 1995 Berg International, Paris

Christophe BEAUFILS

Jean-Pierre BAYARD Les sociétes secrètes et les sectes, 1997 Philippe Lebaud - Paris

Jacqueline ENCAUSSE Un Serviteur Inconnu - Philippe Encausse / Documents

martinistes 31, 1991 Cariscript - Paris

Joscelyn GODWIN, The Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor - Initiatic and Historical Christian CHANEL, Documents of an Order of Practical Occultism

John P. DEVENEY - 1995 Samula Weiser, Inc.

AMORC - U.S.A. Martinist Documents, 1975 San José

TROPHIMUS A Martinist Treasury, 1991 The Martinist Information Service - Greeley, Colorado - U.S.A.

A.E. WAITE, Saint-Martin the french mystic and the story of moder Martinism
Kessinger Publishing Company, USA

G.PHANEG Le Docteur Papus Paris 1909

Dr. Philippe ENCAUSSE Papus, son vie, son oevre, edition 1949

Horst E.MIERS Lexicon des Geheimwissens, edit. 1993

Jules BOUCHER Du Martinisme et des Ordres Martinistes , edit. 1950

R.A. L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ed. 2000

Victor-Emile MICHELET Les Compagnons de la Hiérophanie: souvenirs du movement hermétiste à la fin du XIX siècle

Pietro TURCHETTI il Filosofo Incognito , Arktos, 1995

Gerald GALTIER Maçonnerie Egyptienne, Rose-Croix et Neo-Chevalerie 1989

Robert VANLOO Les Rose-Croix du Nouveau Monde, ed.1996

Peter R.KOENIG Ein Leben fuer die Rose, on Arnoldo Krumm Heller

Documents, Articles, Journals

L'Initiation various articles from the official Martinist journal

Le Voile d'Isis article written by Rene Guenon (1925)

Dr.Carlos Raitzin René Guenon y las Ordenes Esotericas

L'Institut Gaston Levez-vous! Vol.1 no.3 Sept.97-Febr.98 , on Bricaud & Boucher



Le Rose-Croix AMORC's official review in France, no.163-autumn 1993, on Chaboseau and Papus

Various Private E-mail correspondences - Fabrizio Marini (O*M*U), Marc Jones (O*M*SI), John Cole (AM*O*), Chris Hill ( BMO ), Elias Ibrahim, Sar Michael ( AMO ) , R+CMO, Clive Culbertson (O*M* & S ), Glen Holcomb etc.


Fr.M Roggemans De Geschiedenis van de Occulte en Mystieke Broederschappen

"1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I."

Apostolic Gnosis/E.G.A. the Balzac of the Occult and the Russian Sphynx

Frater MELCHIOR Survey on Modern Martinist Orders

Frater FIDUCIUS Inventario de Ordenes Martinistas

( Fratres Lucis )

Martinist Research-Site "Les Maîtres Passés "

Secrets & Societes De l'Heptade "Abbe de la Noue" aux Philosophes de la Nature

Ordine Martinista Short history of the M*O* in Italy

Mike REVISTO Protocol of the Union of Martinist orders

O.M. de Paris Website of Philippe Encausse's O*M* in Paris



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